Program: Data visualization (Python 3)
(1) Prompt the user for a title for data. Output the title.
Enter a title for the data: Number of Novels Authored
You entered: Number of Novels Authored
(2) Prompt the user for the headers of two columns of a table. Output the column headers.
Enter the column 1 header: Author name
You entered: Author name
Enter the column 2 header: Number of novels
You entered: Number of novels
(3) Prompt the user for data points. Data points must be in this format: string, int. Store the information before the comma into a string variable and the information after the comma into an integer. The user will enter -1 when they have finished entering data points. Output the data points. Store the string components of the data points in a list of strings. Store the integer components of the data points in a list of integers.
Enter a data point (-1 to stop input): Jane Austen, 6
Data string: Jane Austen
Data integer: 6
(4) Perform error checking for the data point entries. If any of the following errors occurs, output the appropriate error message and prompt again for a valid data point.
If entry has no comma
Output: Error: No comma in string.
If entry has more than one comma
Output: Error: Too many commas in input.
If entry after the comma is not an integer
Output: Error: Comma not followed by an integer.
Enter a data point (-1 to stop input): Ernest Hemingway 9
Error: No comma in string.
Enter a data point (-1 to stop input): Ernest, Hemingway, 9
Error: Too many commas in input.
Enter a data point (-1 to stop input): Ernest Hemingway, nine
Error: Comma not followed by an integer.
Enter a valid data point: Ernest Hemingway, 9
Data string: Ernest Hemingway
Data integer: 9
(5) Output the information in a formatted table. The title is right justified with a minimum field width value of 33. Column 1 has a minimum field width value of 20. Column 2 has a minimum field width value of 23.
Number of Novels Authored
Author name | Number of novels
Jane Austen | 6
Charles Dickens | 20
Ernest Hemingway | 9
Jack Kerouac | 22
F. Scott Fitzgerald | 8
Mary Shelley | 7
Charlotte Bronte | 5
Mark Twain | 11
Agatha Christie | 73
Ian Flemming | 14
J.K. Rowling | 14
Stephen King | 54
Oscar Wilde | 1
(6) Output the information as a formatted histogram. Each name is right justified with a minimum field width value of 20.
Jane Austen ******
Charles Dickens ********************
Ernest Hemingway *********
Jack Kerouac **********************
F. Scott Fitzgerald ********
Mary Shelley *******
Charlotte Bronte *****
Mark Twain ***********
Agatha Christie *************************************************************************
Ian Flemming **************
J.K. Rowling **************
Stephen King ******************************************************
Oscar Wilde *
Program: Soccer team roster (Dictionaries) (Python 3)
This program will store roster and rating information for a soccer team. Coaches rate players during tryouts to ensure a balanced team.
(1) Prompt the user to input five pairs of numbers: A player’s jersey number (0 - 99) and the player’s rating (1 - 9). Store the jersey numbers and the ratings in a dictionary. Output the dictionary’s elements with the jersey numbers in ascending order (i.e., output the roster from smallest to largest jersey number). Hint: Dictionary keys can be stored in a sorted list.
Enter player 1's jersey number: 84
Enter player 1's rating: 7
Enter player 2's jersey number: 23
Enter player 2's rating: 4
Enter player 3's jersey number: 4
Enter player 3's rating: 5
Enter player 4's jersey number: 30
Enter player 4's rating: 2
Enter player 5's jersey number: 66
Enter player 5's rating: 9
Jersey number: 4, Rating: 5
Jersey number: 23, Rating: 4
Jersey number 30, Rating: 2
(2) Implement a menu of options for a user to modify the roster. Each option is represented by a single character. The program initially outputs the menu, and outputs the menu after a user chooses an option. The program ends when the user chooses the option to Quit. For this step, the other options do nothing.
a - Add player
d - Remove player
u - Update player rating
r - Output players above a rating
o - Output roster
q - Quit
Choose an option:
(3) Implement the “Output roster” menu option.
Jersey number: 4, Rating: 5
Jersey number: 23, Rating: 4
Jersey number 30, Rating: 2
(4) Implement the “Add player” menu option. Prompt the user for a new player’s jersey number and rating. Append the values to the two vectors.
Enter a new player's jersey number: 49
Enter the player's rating: 8
(5) Implement the “Delete player” menu option. Prompt the user for a player’s jersey number. Remove the player from the roster (delete the jersey number and rating).
Enter a jersey number: 4
(6) Implement the “Update player rating” menu option. Prompt the user for a player’s jersey number. Prompt again for a new rating for the player, and then change that player’s rating.
Enter a jersey number: 23
Enter a new rating for player: 6
(7) Implement the “Output players above a rating” menu option. Prompt the user for a rating. Print the jersey number and rating for all players with ratings above the entered value.
Enter a rating: 5
Jersey number: 66, Rating: 9
Jersey number: 84, Rating: 7
The Fibonacci numbers are defined by the following recurrence:
F(0) = 0
F(1) = 1, and
F(i) = F(i−1) + F(i−2) for i ≥ 2.
(a) Consider the following algorithm for computing the nth Fibonacci number.
Algorithm 1 Fibonacci
if n = 0 then
if n = 1 then
return Fibonacci(n − 1) + Fibonacci(n − 2)
Derive a recurrence for Fibonacci(n) and determine the time taken by Fibonacci(n) in
terms of the input n, expressed in Θ()-notation.
(b) Prove that for any n ≥ 2, F(n) equals A, where A is the nth power of the following matrix.
(c) Use part (b) to obtain an algorithm that computes F n in O(log n) time.
Selection from two sorted lists
Design an O(log n) time algorithm to select the median from a set of 2n keys given in the form of two sorted lists, each of length n. For convenience, you may assume that all of the keys are all distinct.
Briefly justify the correctness of the algorithm. Analyze its running time.
A fault-tolerant OR-gate
Assume we are given an infinite supply of two-input, one-output gates, most of which are OR gates and some of which are AND gates. Unfortunately the OR and AND gates have been mixed together and we can’t tell them apart. For a given integer k ≥ 0, we would like to construct a two-input, one-output combinational “k-OR” circuit from our supply of two-input, one output gates such that the following property holds: If at most k of the gates are AND gates then the circuit correctly implements OR. Assume for simplicity that k is a power of two.
For a given integer k ≥ 0, we would like to design a k-OR circuit that uses the smallest number of gates.
(a) Design a 1-OR circuit with the smallest number of gates. Argue the correctness of your circuit.
(b) Using a 1-OR circuit as a black box, design a 2-OR circuit. Argue the correctness of your circuit.
(c) Generalizing the above approach, or using a different approach, design the best possible k-OR circuit you can and derive a Θ-bound (in terms of the parameter k) for the number of gates in your k-OR circuit. Argue the correctness of your circuit.
Reconstructing a total order
A group of n runners finished a close race. Unfortunately, the officials at the finish line were unable to note down the order in which the racers finished. Each runner, however, noted the jersey number of the runner finishing immediately ahead of her or him. (There were no ties.) The race officials ask each runner to give an ordered pair, containing two pieces of information: (i) first, his or her own jersey number and (ii) second, the jersey number of the runner who finished immediately ahead of him or her. The winner of the race, who did not see anybody finish ahead of her, did not turn any information in.
You have been asked to design an algorithm that takes as input the n − 1 pairs and returns the order in which the runners finished the race. Assume each runner is honest.
(a) Give a deterministic O(n log n) time algorithm.
(b) Give a randomized algorithm with expected running time O(n).
You need not prove the correctness of your algorithms. In each case, analyze the running time of your algorithm.
The development of information technology changed the nature of world trade, its explosion, particularly telecommunications and more recently electronic commerce, has changed the nature of competition around the world. Nowadays, technological advancement not only connects the world at lightning speed but also aids in the increased quality of products, information gathering, and R&D (Doh 2009). Without technology, people are expected to hardly survive, the internet has been recently considered as ‘a must’ to live and survive, important and necessary just as food and water. Fifty years ago, internet was like a dream, inaccessible and even if considered maybe realizable, its use used to be considered as limited. Few people could have imagined its real impact on the world. It has transformed the world to flat (Friedman, 2005).
The fact of the matter is that over the long term, the countries that implement globalization will prosper and the countries that do not will get left behind.
To be part of globalization, Information communication technology (ICT) is a necessity, it is the technology required for information processing, i.e. for the creation, manipulation, storage, retrieval and communication of information. It has an immense value in a world in which there is an “information explosion”, and where knowledge is complex, ever-changing and cross-disciplinary in nature. (Kotabe, 2010)
The macroeconomic effects of ICT, in particular on productivity and growth rates, have generated much debate in economics over the past decade, economists say on the basis of findings made in the U.S. and some OECD countries (Australia, New Zealand, Canada), that ICT plays a major role in accelerating the economic growth (Boudson, 2002; Jorgensen and Stiroh, 2001; Jorgensen, 2001; Colecchia and Schyerer, 2001, Gordon, 2002; Petit, 2003 etc..). Others affirm that it is the first and main source of growth in U.S. productivity in the 1990s (Jorgenson 2001, Oliner and Sichel 2000) which may make some developing countries think that the major way to catch up, in an accelerated pace, the industrialized countries is a widespread adoption of the Information and Communications Technologies (ICT). They would change their pace of economic growth and permit a better integration in the international division of labor. Indeed, the emergence of new technologies may allow the opening of “windows” of re-specialization for developing countries. New opportunities can be seized as evidenced by the breakthrough of China’s computer industry and the software industry in India. Thus, some countries have undertaken significant reforms to facilitate the diffusion of ICT in their economies and accelerate their national performances. Multilateral institutions responsible for development seem to strongly support these policies. (Doh, 2009)
The emergence of ICT in the developing countries offers businesses a wide range of technologies, enabling better use of information and explicit knowledge, offering opportunities to reduce transaction costs and coordination opportunities in regard of exploitation of new markets and opportunities for enrichment content products and services.
However, from an international perspective, the question of differences across countries arises: if ICTs constitute an important driver of output and productivity growth, why has an extended growth been observed in some countries – in particular the United States – and not in others? It seems necessary to verify and analyze the trustiness and the effectiveness of these policies as the gains in productivity and growth achieved in some countries like the USA and OECD countries may not be generalizable to developing and emerging countries. (Gordon, 2002)
Nevertheless, some economists consider India one of the countries that have been positively influenced by the ICT effects; it has been the beneficiary of significant foreign investment in Information Technology which made it able to easily adopt these technologies and has been described as the follower of China’s footsteps in income and wealth. The software industry in India was almost inexistent in the early 1980s and it employs now more than 250.000 employees participating then in the growth of revenues and employment (Ashish Arora and Alfonso Gambardella, 2005). Evidence from India as well suggests that internet kiosks that provide wholesale price information and alternative market channels to soybean farmers has led to an increase in the monthly market price by 1-5 percent. Moreover, the area under soybean production has also increased significantly (Goyal 2008).However, in long term view, India is maybe facing challenges greater than the country’s capacity to respond to them (Hamm, 2007). This incapacity may be due to the lack of education within the companies, bureaucracy, physical infrastructure problems and the cultural and social norms. High-quality information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure is essential for developing countries to achieve rapid economic growth and maintain it, international institutions have always tried to convince developed countries to go into a deregulation and invest in ICT to accelerate the economic growth and tend to forget that there are too many other factors that must be considered such as the economic factors, human capital, geography, and civil infrastructure factors (Ojelanki Ngwenyama; Olga Morawczynski, 2009). Yet, large inequalities remain in ICT access. Some commentators hold much more skeptical views of the benefits of ICT for development. They argue that access to ICT depends directly on education, income, and wealth and the so called digital divide is only a part of a much broader development divide. Limited education, inappropriate language skills, or lack of resources could prevent developing countries from accessing ICT, ultimately exacerbating information gaps and increasing income inequality between and within countries (Von Braun, 2005).
We can’t argue about the fact that modern technologies are more highly used in the developed countries; the information revolution started in todays developed countries so it makes sense if they overpass developing countries in term of innovation (Rodriguez and Wilson, 2000). But during the phase of global diffusion, corresponding to the end of last century, extremely decisive, “the thesis of the new economy foreshadowed, not only concerning new growth trends in developed countries, but also expectations of a rapid catch-up by developing countries ” (Boyer, 2002 ). With the access to ICTs being more and more facilitated for some countries. The rapid development and diffusion of the information and communications technology (ICT) is the major driving force of the New Economy, the transition from an industrial/manufacturing-based economy. But we can notice that even in developing countries, the impacts of ICT can’t be always generalized as ICT access depend on the development of the country, Tunisia and India, for example, are both qualified as being part of developing countries but due to the differences in the size, infrastructure, culture, the political support and other factors, the impacts of ICT on them can be different.
In this paper, we will take the example of Tunisia, a developing country that I am from, starting with a study of the impact of ICT on developing countries in general and on Tunisia specifically showing the relationship between growth, productivity and ICT.
The complexity and diversity of the impacts of ICT are important reasons for the interest accorded to the phenomenon of ICT. However, these characteristics also may explain why the extent of the impact of ICT is not a simple task. Another major argument explaining the reason making the impacts of ICT difficult to measure is that any impact of one factor over another is difficult to identify as a positive correlation is not easily attributable to the relation cause/effect. (Von Braun, 2005)
The development of a new generation of information technology and communication (ICT) in the early 1990s has been associated with various assumptions such as the emergence of a new economy: the digital economy that can’t be measured only by the weight of the ICT sector but also by the impact of ICT on overall economic activity. During the decisive phase of global diffusion, corresponding to the end of last century, “the thesis of the new economy foreshadowed, not only new growth trends in industrialized countries, but also expectations of rapid catch-up by developing countries” (Boyer, 2002, p234)
In fact, ICT are indeed generic technologies, which means that they are used by all other activities; the role of supporting economic growth played by ICT is a necessary condition, but they are not enough. (stewards, 2002; Pohjola, 2002)
On the one hand, more recent theoretical and empirical studies in the literature discussed the positive impacts of ICT and mainly IT on productivity (Hitt and Brynjolfsson, 1996); Brynjolfsson and Yang, 1996), growth and development (Jorgenson and Stiroh, 1995; Mansell and When, 1998; Pohjola, 2000; and Pohjola, 2001), work place organization (Bresnahan, Brynjolfsson and Hitt, 1999), human capital development and skill upgrading Acemoglu, 1998; and Hwang, 2000). On the other hand, some recent studies in the literature show the potential negative impacts of ICT on some dimensions of economic development. The majority of the recent studies that focused on this side were mainly related to the debate that technical change is creative destruction, although it has some positive impacts to enhance economic development. However, on the other hand, it has also some negative impacts on some dimensions of economic development. For instance, some studies, discuss the negative impacts of ICT on employment and the labor market (. Aghion and Howitt, 1998; Freeman and Soete, 1985; Freeman and Soete, 1994; and Freeman and Soete, 1997). Part of this literatures states that ICT or IT is similar to various kinds of technical change in imposing the so called labour saving or skilled biased effect, through the displacement of some unskilled labour due to either reduction or elimination of some unskilled jobs.
当留学生在写作dissertation论文的时候，会在快要结束前写上结论句。The concluding sentence，也就是我们所说的结论句，通常与主题句一样包含有段落的中心思想，但所用的措辞却与主题句不同，所以结论句也是一篇dissertation论文中非常重要的一部分。那么，关于结论句我们又应该怎么来写呢？不用着急，下面大家就跟着51due英国论文代写平台一起来学习一下dissertation论文结论句的写作方法吧！
例如在关于“cigarette smoking”的示范段落中，中心思想是“the health problems caused by cigarette smoking，关键词是“health problems”。
在关于“cigarette smoking”的示范段落中，隐含的问题是“What are the health problems caused by cigarette smoking？”结论句作出的回答是It is identified as one of the chief cause of death in our society.
在关于“cigarette smoking”的示范段落中，主题句的关键词是“health problems”，而在结论句中，关键词是“causes of death”。
Our neighborhood has been greatly changed．When I last visited there，about half the homes had been torn down to make way for a superhighway．The remaining buildings were plastered with billboards and surrounded by traffic signs and litter．Now the whole neighborhood has become dirty，noisy and full of cars．
主题句：Our neighborhood has been changed．
主题句隐含的问题：“How has the neighborhood changed？
1.a superhighway built—noisy and full of cars
2.full of billboards，traffic signs and litter—dirty
结论句：Now the whole neighborhood has become dirty，noisy andfull of cars．
结论句关键词：dirty，noisy and full of cars
概述（30词左右）：用最简洁的语言概括论文内容。例如：This paper is… 或 This study focuses on…
目的（30词左右）：用To…即可，没有必要使用 in order to 或者 for the purpose of 等较长的表述。
方法（50词左右）：尽可能具体地说明操作的步骤，同时要注意时态的使用。常用的词汇有：test, study, investigate, examine, analyze, measure, application 等。
结果（50词左右）：直入主题并摆出结果，如 This paper shows… 或 The results are…
结论（60词左右）：删去类似于“The result of the study showed that…” 的赘语，改为逐条罗列出结论。
展望（20词左右）：指出研究对未来的意义，如 This paper is of great significance in…，或者指出不足。
英国代写语言学论文精选：“A Study of British Telecom”，这篇论文主要讲述了英国电信公司的发展历程，以及英国电信公司是如何使用三种策略走向成功的。文章指出，变化管理方案可以为公司带来战略变化，而这也是英国电信公司取得成功的关键原因。
This report discusses the comparative analysis of three strategies namely incremental, renovate and inventive within the context of the internal as well as the external environment of a company such as BT (British Telecommunications Limited) which is a multinational telecommunications services company headquartered in London. It also evaluates a change management programme that can bring about strategic change within this organisation. BT has a global services as well as a retail division. Its operations span 170 countries throughout the world.
Company’s Internal and External Environment and Its Strategy Type
In the current business scenario, intense competition, integration across global markets, changes in technology and the advancement of the telecommunications sector are some of the external factors that influence the change management program of BT. the Company’s managerial talent and the level of the motivation of its workforce are some of the internal factors influencing strategic management. In order to improve the effectiveness of the organisation, strategy is the key because it leverages the capabilities of the individuals and the institution in a cohesive manner. The ideal development strategy for a company like BT that seeks business resilience and sustainability throughout its line of operations is an incremental approach.
Incremental strategies are effective within the current dynamic environment. Regulatory convergence is a key factor in the selection of incremental strategy for handling change and sustaining profits. The challenges of global competition have to be seen within the broader regulatory framework for effective strategic management. The incremental approach to strategic management is in response to the complex and ever changing corporate environment. Consequently, the strategic process moved in an incremental manner adapting to changes in the internal and external environment of the company. Decisions will then be driven by multiple goals. BT has low levels of business resources with respect to its telecommunications services though it is steadily expanding in the field of broadband communications. BT has reported a fall in sales though it experienced a healthy profit in 2013. Moderate or high business resources imply greater strategic capabilities which enable the company to excel using innovation or denotative strategic management. Annual pre-tax profits of BT were up by more than 40% but sales fell by 4%.
Business Strategy BT Competitive Analysis
The major feature of the incremental strategy is that it is decentralised and it responds to dynamic environmental challenges. BT is facing a changing socioeconomic milieu wherein the incremental approach accounts for this variable. An incremental strategy enables the organisation to fulfil its mission by closing the divide between long as well as short term goals within a changing environment. Organisational design followed a contingency approach since landmark research was conducted by Emery and Trist (1965) as well as Lawrence and Lorsch (1967). When a company faces a challenging environment, incremental strategy is far better than inventive or renovate strategies on account of the challenging environment faced by the company. As a British MNC which has to face global competition, BT should opt for an incremental strategy to boost its prospects and sales. The degree to which the environment of a company is globalised also influences its development strategy. Porter has proposed the five force model for analyses of competition presented below:
porters five forces model 300×229 Business Strategy BT
Porters 5 Force Model
Figure 1: Porter’s 5 Force Model from Michael Porter, “Competitive Strategies”
Porter’s model elucidates how competition from different sources can create industry rivalry. Competitive analyses in the context of an incremental strategy is suitable for organisations such as BT which want to cope with competition from different sources, as discussed in Porter’s model.
Business Strategy BT Competitive Advantage
BT needs to consider the complete gamut of competitors through an incremental approach to change management. Porter (1980) has argued that organisations should consider the behaviour of firms that are producing same/similar products as well as the action of suppliers, competitors producing substitute products and the customers themselves. An incremental strategy enables companies such as BT to develop a holistic view of the market to promote business resilience and boost profits. Competitive advantage has been discussed through a model proposed by Porter discussed below:
Porters Generic Strategies Model 300×192 Business Strategy BT
Porters Generic Strategies Model
Figure 2: Porter’s Generic Strategies Model (Porter, 1980)
Ansoff (1985) has discussed how companies should also develop the strategy keeping in mind the flow of critical resources for production. They should also consider how they will impact non-market actors. Nonmarket actors or strategic interest groups also have an important role to play in influencing the development strategy of a firm. BT should follow a cost leadership strategy for low cost rather than aiming for product uniqueness as there are many rivals offering advanced services in this sector.
The culture of an organisation also plays a key role in influencing the strategy it adopts. The company’s abilities revolve around the resource, skills and procedures as well as its competencies. Attitudes and other cognitive factors reflect an organisation’s culture. The work culture at BT is unique. It focuses on completion of projects and garnering of crucial contracts. The organisational culture of a company influences its success in current times. BT needs to follow an incremental strategy whereby it adapts to changing global and domestic environment so that it can keep up with its competitors. The choice of a strategic management approach is based on several critical considerations such as an organisation’s strategic capabilities, competitive analyses, competitive advantage and culture.
An organisation must have a strategy that can meet the challenges of its internal or external environment (Ashby, 1961). Therefore, an incremental strategy would be ideal for enhancing the sustainability of business practices and the resilience of British Telecom. Consider the personnel, structure, systems and financial resources to be important factors in any strategy for change management. An incremental strategy follows a contingency approach which is ideal for British Telecom.
The organisation’s culture as reflected by collective values, experiences and beliefs of its members also has a critical role to play in its success. An incremental strategy for development and change management incorporates this effectively, making it the viable and effective choice for BT which has skilled employees. An incremental strategy is ideal for bringing about small but important changes in the organisational functioning compared to inventive or renovate strategies which focus on large scale change.
In order to possess business resilience and sustainability in its operations, BT needs to follow an incremental strategy to bolster its current organisational culture. Companies need to be proactive to cope with changes such as economic slowdowns, increased global competition and massive amount of technological advancement. BT would do well to adopt an incremental, contingency oriented approach to strategic management to cope with this.
Critical Evaluation of the Incremental Strategy
Incremental strategy is ideal for British Telecom. An incremental strategy enables the company to have flexibility in coping with uncertainties in the field of policy regulation and governance.
There is a need to bargain with stakeholders and integrate human and organisational capabilities to catapult the company to the path of success. Renovate and innovative strategies can only be effective in environments where there are less regulation uncertainties (Lindblom, 1979). Each of the different resources within a company plays a critical role in its success. Through an incremental approach, British Telecom can impact its employees in a positive way. By instilling coping skills and out of the box thinking to manage dynamic and changing situations, BT can boost its profits.
Employees also differ in terms of their personal knowledge, perception, limitations, and it is due to this inherent complexity that incremental strategy can be the perfect tool for change. Diversity is one of the chief features of the workforce at BT. Therefore; development strategies followed here should take advantage of this versatility. Incremental approaches to strategic management can accomplish this. Top managers within the same company can approach the same problem with different solutions (Bower & Doz, 1979).
Operations system provides guidance regarding how work procedures must be carried on and provides the framework for performing the work People are the key resources of any company. They are the prime assets which spur the growth and development of the organisation. Operations are a key area where rapid changes have to be kept pace with. The internal as well as external stakeholders also play a central role in the company’s success (Lindblom, 1959; Mintzberg, 1919). Balancing the goals and interests of stakeholders is the key to organisational success (Ansoff, 1985). BT should adopt an incremental strategy to improve operations.
Financial resources are necessary to accomplish goals and provide rewards. Money is one of the primary motivators for obtaining optimal performance from employees in the work setting. Annual pre-tax profits were up 42% to £2.4bn, last year for BT while sales were down 4%. An incremental strategy is ideal for a company such as BT which has ample financial resources.
Technology sets the stage for the company to maximise its capabilities if it keeps pace with it. Effective utilisation of resources is a must if a company has to progress and make healthy profits. An organisation’s culture is maintained and transmitted by its workers. Leaders of internal stakeholder groups are the key assets to instil positive change within an organisation. For companies such as BT that are facing moderate to heavy environmental turbulence, an incremental strategy for strategic management is needed (Mintzberg, 1973).
Several comprehensive reviews have been conducted by leading researchers in the field of strategic management (Hofer, 1976; Vancil, 1976; Armstrong, 1982). Research has found that degree of formality centralisation, hierarchical structure and comprehensiveness of any company is influenced by its environment, and complexity (Armstong, 1982, Hofer, 1976). In current scenario, an incremental strategy is optimal for BT.
Change Management Programme
A change management programme for British Telecom must incorporate an incremental approach. This is because its external and internal environment is more suited to an approach that makes allowances for sudden and rapid changes. Whether it is people, financial aspects, technological advancements or organisational culture, all aspects of an organisation’s functioning need to be taken into account for effective change management. A conventional approach towards change management will not be successful. In 1995, John Kotter published his landmark paper “Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail”. This paper cited how only 30% of change programs are successful.
The biggest advantages of a change management programme for British Telecom through an incremental strategy is that it will make allowances for the rapid changes in technology and competition that are taking place in the Indian telecommunications sector. Colin Price and Emily Lawson (2003) suggested that the conditions which must be met for employees within an organisation to embrace change include their agreement to the change, effective role modelling for inculcation of change oriented behaviours, and reinforcement systems that encourage the behaviour and the skills required for change. The structures, systems, processes and incentives within a change management program should be conducive towards a positive transformation of the company into a reliable and sustainable business.
An incremental approach to strategic management can bring about this transformation for British Telecom. But change management processes should have an appeal for employees. Businesses that want to do more than survive have to remodel themselves to match up to competitors. Change management programmes have incorporated various methods such as total quality management, rightsizing, restructuring, cultural change and turnarounds in a bid to improve their profit margins. British Telecom needs to follow a change programme that pursues innovation in a way that is flexible and keeps in line with the incremental strategy of adapting to changes. Too many companies fail to progress beyond a certain point when it comes to garnering market share because they do not anticipate change due to factors such as advances in technology and industrial competition. Even a change management programme based on the incremental approach can have a few pitfalls though. Anticipating change is not easy. Many times, market analysts may be predicting a trend which is short-lived. Kotter’s 10 year study of more than 100 companies found unsuccessful change management programmes failed to generate the urgency or formulate a vision that could be communicated well to bring about a complete transition.
Companies need to be practical and realistic in their aspirations. Only then can change management programmes succeed in a complete sense. Obstacles to the change management programme suggested in this paper include rapid changes in the regulatory framework, unforeseen innovations and advancements in the field of technology and lack of market foresight. Genuine transformations require game changing ideas which can bring about creative solutions to problems. A change management programme based on an incremental strategy can only succeed if company personnel have the objectivity to view successes and failures in accurate ways.
英国硕士paper代写论文精选：“Research on Service Marketing”，这篇论文主要讲述了服务营销的概念以及适用范围、场所，文章以作者的观点分析探讨了服务营销对于一家公司的关键性和重要性。
This is a reflective learning log of mine of my study on the Services Marketing of this semester. The reflective diary recorded what I have learned after the class, as well as my ideas and thoughts on the theories and knowledge of this lecture. It is critical as I recorded my personal thoughts in this reflection diary, which can find out my shortcomings for the understanding of the research issue and improve my learning ability of the service marketing.
Task 1: Services Marketing Joe & Co. Hairdressing
The lecture on the service encounter is hold in this week. Its definitions, the negative encounter and positive encounter are discussed as the hairdressing for example. The proposing of the concept of service encounter is based on the emphasis of the person-to-person encounter in the service industry. The service encounter is the direct source of the perception of customer service. The quality of service depends largely on customer perception, while the customer perception is based on service encounter ability. Therefore, the service encounter can be divided into the negative encounter and positive encounter. I think the service provider should put emphasis on the positive encounter on the customers during the interaction with the customers.
Task 2: Services Marketing Kennedy’s Gallery
In this class, the case of Kennedy’s Gallery is taken to illustrate these marketing elements. Through the case of Kennedy’s Gallery, it can be concluded that the participation of the employees plays an important role in the entire marketing activities. Enterprises should pay attention to the whole process of providing service to users. Through the interactive communication, the enterprises can understand the feelings of the customers, enabling customers to become participants in the process of marketing services, so as to improve their services in a timely manner to meet customer expectations. 7P’s puts more emphasis on the service than the traditional 4P’s. The participation of the employees and the cooperation of different departments are very important in this theory.
Task 3: Services Marketing NSPCC
Through the learning of this class, I know the non-profit organization. The non-profit organizations have the characteristics of services. Marketing of nonprofit organizations has many similarities with it of profit organizations. However, because the non-profit organization not only seeks the interests of their organization, more importantly, it also seeks interests of target group, for the benefit of society as a whole. Non-profit organizations usually combine the product, place, price, promotion, people, process and physical evidence marketing tools together to develop marketing mix strategies, in order to achieve the organization’s marketing and management goals. In my view, non-profit organizations should carefully analyze their own characteristics; play their advantage of high credibility authority through publicity and public service ads to establish their own image, and achieve the marketing goals.
Task 4: Services Marketing
This lecture discussed on the factory metaphor of the services organization. The metaphor helps us better understand on a relatively nonobjective process. The service marketing operations are like the procedures of the factories, when customers can get the service as the products as they enter the factories. In this model, the participation of the customers, the customer encounter, and service efficiency are very important. In this metaphor, the service organization faces the same issue. The positive or negative customer encounter affects the customers’ perception. To sum up, the service organization emphasizes the interaction of the customers, and the metaphor of factory helps the focus of the customer experience during providing the service.
Task 5: Services Marketing the Story
Singapore Airlines is studied in this class, which provides the air service for its customers. It has its special services different from its competitors. It also has some drawbacks of its service. The company provides this air service to get profits. During the process of providing services, the customers can get an impression whether their paid is worthy. Based on the customer perception, the customers make decisions on the next purchasing. The case of Singapore Airlines tells me the service plays larger portion in the minds of customers, the quality of the service is increasingly the key to win the customers and market.
Task 6: TNT
The task of this week is the study of TNT. I have learned the challenges TNT faced, measures of evaluating the customer satisfaction, relationship marketing and the competitive advantage of TNT in the future. The case of TNT tells me that the feedback from the customers is very important when conducting the business operation. In order to achieve the good market performance, the enterprise should pare no efforts to improve the customer satisfaction. The relationship marketing is also a way for the enterprises of the marketing through the building of the long-term relationship with their customers. TNT also contributes to the relationship marketing. Through this study, I have recognized that the importance of the relationship marketing as to improve the customer satisfaction and achieve good market performance.
In conclusion, this reflective diary only recorded part of what I have learned of this lesson, in fact, I got not only the useful and interesting knowledge, but also the service marketing skills. For my future learning, the methods and theories of this lecture may be used. In addition, the service marketing exists not only in the business, but only in people’s life. The service marketing awareness is also very important.
While an Internet is an important discovery that has excellent functions and has lots of benefits to humans; daily lives, its excess use also has many dysfunctions. Internet has tremendous amounts of functions. We use Internet for different purposes; such as for school works, for shopping, bill payments, online banking and for social networking, such as (Facebook, twitter, yahoo mail, hot mail, g mail and my space) and even for dating. It also enables people to watch videos on YouTube, play video games, read books and journals and other material resources. However when people spent an unlimited number of times on a computer for non-profit activities like, gaming and Facebooking whole the day results in time wastage and if repeatedly used can cause Internet addiction.
Lam argued Internet addiction as an uncontrollable and detrimental use of the use of Internet and is documented as a compulsive-impulsive Internet usage disorder“(Lam 2). , Kimberly Young, of the Center for Internet Addiction Recovery in Bradford, Pennsylvania said ;At the same time the Internet has had negative ramifications. Some people are becoming preoccupied with the Internet, are unable to control their use, and are jeopardizing employment and relationships. The concept of;Internet addiction; has been proposed as an explanation for uncontrollable, damaging use of this technology”(Young 2). But some opinions are opposing this argument and expressing that Internet use as not addiction. Kim said;there are various opinions on Internet addiction. A common saying is that if someone is addicted to anything and it is knowledge, this case is not addiction”(Kim 1). However, I would argue that if we extremely use anything even if it is knowledge it is addiction. The more heavily we use the internet the more negative consequences we have, such as, disproportionate time wastage, diminutive school performance and also the possibility of developing mood disorders.
Several situations can cause Internet addictions including, family, friends with whom we spend most time, peers and some other neighbors have the paramount significance. Hyung situated multiple causes of Internet addiction and he said,“;the causes of Internet addiction are not only associated with habitual backgrounds of using the Internet, but also demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds; (Hyung 10). The availability of computers and Internet access, and some work conditions such as work schedules that need more sitting and office works in which most times are spent on computers have also high probability to entice people and that impose them to Internet addiction. Some other job related conditions for instance, in some work areas employees spend the entire work time by working on the computers, some colleges and universities have 24 hr. open services so that students spend time on this unlimited access to any websites and that also lead to addiction, to day most people have smart phones including me which give us unlimited access to the web and is increasing the chance to addiction. Lam said “;The direct cause of Internet addiction is unknown, but the prevalence is high in young adults with introverted personality;Being a male, drinking, dissatisfaction with a family, and experience of a recent stressful event were potential risk factors of Internet addiction” (Lam2- 3). Environmental factors such as lack of activities outside home lack of friends/neighborhood to walk with and shortage of recreational areas can also cause the chance to develop Internet addiction.
Once happened the treatments of Internet addictions are not specifically based on pharmaceutical therapies and are easily preventable manners. Sally suggesting internet based counseling as effective therapies and he said;traditional therapies for addictions were underutilized and characterized by high attrition rates suggesting they may not meet the needs of a proportion of individuals with addiction-related problems including problem drinking, smoking, substance use and problem gambling, but Internet-based therapies for addictions are effective in achieving positive behavioral changes and this may require more research to determine the comparative effectiveness of various Internet-based therapies and their components; (Sally 1) . Exposure therapy is also recommended. Young said”Part of therapy needs to help adolescents communicate with others offline;This helps an adolescent practice using eye contact when speaking to other people and develops listening skills, things they can do online” (Young 10). As of Young internet is more reparable way of communication and there is limited access to personal communication in addicted people, so as people are exposed to new faces they can experience more face to face communications and that could minimize their use of internet (Young 10-13). Limiting the amounts of times spent on the internet by increasing duties that are not associated with computer or internet use and counseling can also be used as a recommended treatment option.
The effects of Internet addiction could not be simply seen, as low as time wastage and occupational impairments, but also several distortions could be seen in association with Internet addiction. Dong said;High-risk Internet addiction (IA) abusers can trigger uncontrollable abuse, significantly distressing feelings, and time-consuming social and occupational difficulties; some abusers reported their addiction could cause mood depression and feelings of guilt, or induce aggressive behavior after a prolonged use of the Internet. Almost all IA abusers claim to encounter relational, academic, familial, and occupational impairments (Dong1- 2). Sitting and spending number of times also can cause circulatory and musculoskeletal disorders such as fatigue (generalized muscle weakness), hemorrhoids, which lead to colon cancer and varicose vein are some of physical problems caused my excessive sitting. The productivity of these Internet addicted people is also low. Seville said When individuals spend considerable amounts of time engaging in immediately gratifying Internet activities, they have less time to invest in social relationships, vocational advancement, and other activities that presumably yield larger but more-delayed benefits (Saville 2). Young also clarified some effects of addictions in many ways. He said;many addicted adolescents cannot communicate well in face-to-face situations. This is part of why they game in the first place. Communicating online seems safer and easier for them. However, lack of communication skills can cause poor self-esteem, feelings of isolation and create additional problems in life among adolescents (Young 10). Hyung also said,;Internet addiction disorder (IAD), as a form of technological addiction, ruins lives by causing neurological complications, psychological disturbances, and relational chaos”(Hyung 1).
Generally, no one will argue that the world has not benefitted from digital technology and especially the Internet. As with most improvements, some problems have developed because of Internet usage. As new innovations increase their side effects also increase. People are not only beneficiary from what they invented, but also they are casualties of their works. The time and money spent for treatments of such cases are not counted lower. The effects are also life threatening and not been simply cured and prevented.
Dong Wei, Lu, Wang Jenn Wu, and Huang Andrew Chih Wei. “Differentiation of Internet Addiction Risk Level Based on Autonomic Nervous Responses: The Internet-Addiction Hypothesis of Autonomic Activity.” CyberPsychology, Behavior & Social Networking 13.4 (2010): 371-378. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 23 Mar. 2011.
Gainsbury, Sally, and Alex Blaszczynski. “A systematic review of Internet-based therapy for the treatment of addictions.” Clinical Psychology Review 31.3 (2011): 490-498. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 31 Mar. 2011.
Jong-Un, Kim. “The Effect of a R/T Group Counseling Program on The Internet Addiction Level and Self-Esteem of Internet Addiction University Students.” International Journal of Reality Therapy 27.2 (2008): 4-12. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 12 Apr. 2011.
Lam, Lawrence, et al. “Factors Associated with Internet Addiction among Adolescents.” CyberPsychology & Behavior 12.5 (2009): 551-555. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 22 Mar. 2011.
Mann Hyung, Hur. “Demographic, Habitual, and Socioeconomic Determinants of Internet Addiction Disorder: An Empirical Study of Korean Teenagers.” CyberPsychology & Behavior 9.5 (2006): 514-525. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 31 Mar. 2011.
Saville, Bryan K., et al. “INTERNET ADDICTION AND DELAY DISCOUNTING IN COLLEGE STUDENTS.” Psychological Record 60.2 (2010): 273-286. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 21 Mar. 2011.
Young, Kimberly. “Understanding Online Gaming Addiction and Treatment Issues for Adolescents.” American Journal of Family Therapy 37.5 (2009): 355-372. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 23 Mar. 2011