The notion of one’s race is mistakenly implied by one’s phenotypes: the physical attributes that is clearly visible. Humans display hundreds of different phenotypes ranging from hair color, the color of one’s skin , eye color, and etc. In theory, a biological race is defined as a geographically isolated subdivision of a species, this so called “subspecies,” would be capable of interbreeding with other subspecies of the same species but would not do so because of the geographical isolation. However, racial classifications based on phenotypes bring about the issue of determining which traits should define one’s race. Should races be defined by skin color, height, nose lengths or facial feature? Even though different races may differ in physical attributes for a certain trait, which allows biologists to classify different races exclusively, many races share similar phenotypes, making this biological attempt ineffective. Races are not as biologically distinct as most people might believe. One obvious issue with the “color-based” racial labels is that the terms do not accurately portray skin color. For example “White people are more pink, beige, or tan than white. Black people are various shades of brown, and yellow people are tan or beige” (textbook pg 117). A conclusive dilemma with the tripartite scheme is that most populations and ethnic groups do not fit any of the three great races: “Does the bronze color of the Polynesians connect them to the Caucasoids or to the Mongoloids?” (textbook pg 120). Does the dark skin color of the ethnic groups in southern India classify them with black Africans or with the Caucasian race because of their facial features and hair form? These issues arise when races are classified with merely one's skin color, so how do we classify a population based on their phenotypes? Would it better to base racial classifications on a combination of physical traits? This interpretation brings upon more complexities, as skin color, stature, skull form and facial features don't come together as a combined unit: because a single “race” of people contain many different kinds of phenotypes depending on the individual, it’s difficult to classify an entire group of people just based on a common physical trait these people may or may not share. The most desirable way to classify races and ethnic groups is by allocating the groups under a cultural perspective and not with a biological basis. The concept of race can be further defined as self-identification by people according to the races or groups in which they most comfortably identify as their own. Race is not in fact a biologically structured inescapable identity that humans are born with, but rather a social construct created by society, the population, and most importantly, ourselves.
One example of a country with a culturally constructed race system is the United States, where one acquires his or her racial identity at birth, as a ingrained status, but isn't based on biology or on one's ancestry (textbook pg 342). In the standpoint of a racially mixed marriage in America involving one black and one white parent, the child is biologically 50 percent white and 50 percent black, but American culture overlooks this biological heredity and culturally classifies this child as black. This is the rule of descent, more specifically hypodescent: “it automatically places the children of a union between members of different groups in the minority group” (textbook pg 342). The practice of hypodescent began with the founding of the earlier American colonies with the installation of slavery. But with the abolishing of slavery in the early 20th century, a person's racial status became solidified in legal definitions and application. With the induction of the Jim Crow laws, the State added stringent laws classifying populations as black based on traceable and/or noticeable ancestry. Hypodescent is arbitrary in that it was maintained and created by a certain culture, therefore it being a cultural construction. Unlike the biological implications of race and ethnic groups, culturally constructed notions of race are not static, but rather continuously changing over time as different divisions of societies fluctuates and diverges.
As a country of immigrants, as the world's great big melting pot, consisting of thousands of races congregating in one society, American culture today, is pretty much for the most part, culturally understanding, aware and ignores considerable diversity in biology, language and geographical origin. When one hastily examines the country of Japan however, one can assume that Japan is “homogeneous in race, ethnicity, and culture” and for the most part, in a biological standpoint, the people of Japan are all of the identical race. With closer inspection of the social structure and stratification of Japan's culture this can not be more further from the truth, “10 percent of Japan's national population are minorities of various sorts, including the aboriginal Ainu, annexed Okinawans, outcast burakumin, children of mixed marriages, and immigrant nationalities, especially Koreans, who number more than 700,000” (textbook, 344). The racial approach in Japan can best be described as, “intrinsic racism”: the belief that a racial difference is a sufficient reason to value one person less than another. (textbook, 344). Japan's social culture also operates with a pseudo-hypodescent where mixed offspring automatically become members of the minority group, while children of mixed marriages between the majority Japanese and other are denounced for not being “pure” Japanese. Race is culturally constructed in Japan with the definition of themselves with the opposition to members of a different race. Any race or ethnic group that is “not us” is discouraged from assimilation, and residential segregation, and taboos on mixed marriages work to separate the “pure” Japanese from the minorities. Even though the many different ethnic groups in Japan may be genetically, and biologically similar, the rigid culturally constructed notions of race in Japan discriminates against many groups such as the burakumin: “The burakumin often live in villages and neighborhoods with poor housing and sanitation. The have limited access to education, jobs, amenities and health facilities” (textbook 345). Even though Japan is currently working to decimate the segregation against the burakumin by dismantling their legal structure of discrimination, they have yet to install affirmative-action programs for education and jobs, making it difficult for the burakumin to find work, and respect even in this modern age and time.
Unlike some of the more exclusive and methodical constructions of race in America and Japan, Brazil's culture employs less systematic exclusionary categories, which condones members of a certain ethnic group to alter their racial classification. Not that Brazil has as much racial antipathy as Japan or even America, but because Brazilian racial classification pays attention to an individual's expressed physical characteristics, an individual is able to change his or her phenotype and racial label with environmental factors: “A Brazilian can change his or her race by changing his or manner of dress language, location and even attitude” (textbook, 346). Even though America and Brazil both are similar in a demographic and sociological sense, the race construction in these two countries cultivated independently. Just simply because of the way America and Brazil differed in their method of settlement, the social class and ethnic structure of these two societies differ, not because of the biological genetics of the individuals, but purely because of the culturally constructed notions of race in both respective countries.
老让读者读长句，这会累死人的！所以，尽可能地写一个短小精辟的句子，说不定能起到画龙点睛的作用呢！如果我们把短句放在段首或者段末，也可以起到揭示主题的作用：As a creature, I eat; as a man, I read.
eg.：Although one action is to meet the primary need of my body and the other is to satisfy the intellectual need of mind, they are in a way quite similar.
eg.：To begin with, you must work hard at your lessons and be fully prepared before the exam（主题句）. Without sufficient preparation, you can hardly expect to answer all the questions correctly.
(1)first, second, third, last;
(2)firstly, secondly, thirdly, finally;
(3)the first, the second, the third, the last;
(4)in the first place, in the second place, in the third place, lastly;
(5)to begin with, then, furthermore, finally;
(6)to start with, next, in addition, finally;
(7)first and foremost, besides, last but not least;
(8)most important of all, moreover, finally;
(9)on the one hand, on the other hand;
(10)for one thing, for another thing。
比如：I cannot bear it.可以用短语表达为：I cannot put up with it.
I want it.可以用短语表达为：I am looking forward to it.
原因很简单，写Dissertation时还是应该写一些实际的东西，不要空话连篇，所以这就要求小伙伴们一定要多用实词，少用虚词。51due这里所说的虚词就是指那些比较大的词，比如我们说很好的时候，不应该只说nice这样空洞的词，应该使用一些诸如generous, humorous, interesting, smart, gentle, warm-hearted, hospital 之类的形象词。
再比如：走出房间，一般的单词表达是：Walk out of the room.
但是小偷走出房间应该说：Slip out of the room.
小姐走出房间应该说：Sail out of the room.
小孩走出房间应该说：Dance out of the room.
老人走出房间应该说：Stagger out of the room.
比如说：I enjoy music and he is fond of playing guitar.
如果是二者并列的，我们可以用一个超级句式:：Not only the fur coat is soft, but it is also warm.
其他的词组可以用：besides, furthermore, likewise, moreover
eg.：The car was quite old, yet it was in excellent condition.The coat was thin, but it was warm.
更多的词组有：despite that, still, however, nevertheless, in spite of, despite, notwithstanding
(3)因果（so, so, so）：昨天在街上我看到了一个女孩，然后我主动搭讪，然后我们去咖啡厅，然后我们认识了，然后我们成为了朋友…可见，讲故事的时候我们总要追求先后顺序，先什么，后什么，所以然后这个词就变得很常见了。其实这个词表示的是先后或因果关系！比如：The snow began to fall, so we went home.
更多词组有：then, therefore, consequently, accordingly, hence, as a result, for this reason, so that
eg.：This is what I can do.Whether he can go with us or not is not sure.
同样，主语、宾语、表语也可以改成如下的复杂成分：When to go, Why he goes away…
eg.：The man whom you met yesterday is a friend of mine.
I don’t enjoy that book you are reading.
Mr Liu, our oral English teacher, is easy-going.
其实这是很简单的语法，同位语：要解释的东西删除后不影响整个句子的构成；定语从句：借用之前的关键词并用其重新组成一个句子插入其中，但是whom or that 等关键词必须要紧跟在先行词之前。
eg.：Whether your tastes are modern or traditional, sophisticated or simple, there is plenty in London for you.
Nowadays, energy can be obtained through various sources such as oil, coal, natural gas, solar heat, the wind and ocean tides.
We have got to study hard, to enlarge our scope of knowledge, to realize our potentials and to pay for our life.
比如：The weather being fine, a large number of people went to climb the Western Hills.
Africa is the second largest continent, its size being about three times that of China.
To answer a question like the proposed one, it is necessary first to follow some steps that can guide us into the correct line to obtain the best response which not only will give the exactly solution to the problem but also it will let one fulfill the necessity of know and comprehend the context of the entire situation. Saying this, it is essential to know how the international relations work and what are they about, and off course it is needed to recognize the definition of geography to be able to create some bases for give a correct response and to have the capacity to establish a connection between the two terms’ meaning and make a reflection of how they can coexist and be related with each other in the daily development of life.
Although, we need to analyze each of the geography factors that have influenced the international system, why are they about and how they have change their importance; so we can finally come with a complete solution to the question treated, taking into account all the information recollected. This solution will let us create some general and specific conclusions that may be useful to understand the conduct of this system and come with a new perspective of the world’s behavior in terms of the international relations and the geography that would permit us participate of it in an active and conscientiously way.
The term of international relations, to begin, refers to: “a branch of political science concerned with relations between nations and primarily with foreign policies”. Analyzing this definition, there is the word “international” as a strong factor, that involves not only more actors with different cultures, aspects, needs, and behaves participating in the system, but also implies an expansion of territory where relations are not longer realized in the national borders from each state, yet it now refers that human interactions are done in the entire world. The definition also shows the importance of creating foreign policies which can be understood as the plans of states to follow at the time of interact internationally.
No matter how different international contacts between states have been, (due to people’s mental conception of the world, and the existing differences between the actors that affects this humans interactions), they will be always present in the history, representing humankind natural necessity of interaction, and they will be always affected by the decisions and behaviors of the representatives in the international system. One example can be taken from the old ages, where the interests of some international actors as Cristobal Colón, were discovering new lands and persons, to increase the territory of the king and to open new markets with the “India”. In here, territory represents Cristobal Colón wants of recognizing the shape of the world and the general necessity of creating maps to be able to go through the land and expand territory, wealth, knowledge and so on.
As we see, international relations can be a complex system that shows the interactions between the humans all around the world, but having a deeply view, it is possible to understand and see that those interactions work according to more specific aspects of the actors, which are also related to the external environment where they developed their cultures, believes, wants and methods to achieve all the goals that they have on mind.
On the other hand the term of geography, refers to: “The scientific study of the location and spatial variation in both physical and human phenomena on Earth”. Since ancient times, humankind has always been interested in knowing the surrounding world and before we knew the world as it is today, we used to dream with distant “treasures” in other lands, including not only the mineral materials like gold or oil that have a big economic value nowadays, but also new landscapes with better grounds that let us harvest and build new villages, territories with a variety of climates and may be other persons with differences in their physical aspect, culture and life style from who to learn new techniques and to whom we could teach or even colonize.
In other words, geographers are the ones who investigate the distribution of all of the resources in the earth and how nature has gave to some nations what other nations don’t even know but that they will probably want a need. According to the geography branch, geographers have an especial field of study, for example, those who have the population as the base of study and are in charge of analyze physical differences between races, are called human geographers; those specialized in behaviors and believes are called cultural geographers, and finally those who search all the territory, it’s location in the map and the advantages and disadvantages of that location, are the physical geographers.
As we have discussed before, international relations have been evolving according to the actors and some other factors that influenced them, including ideology, economic, politic, and geographical aspects. It is in this analysis where we can notice the relation between the two terms, and it permits us the establishment of a new definition that involves both terms. This definition would says that international relations are the connections and interactions established by humans all around the world, whose acts are defined according to their personal culture, raze and territory characteristics. Therefore sometimes the relations become difficult when the differences between these aspects from each nation, shock among them. All this factors that influenced human actions are the field of study of geography.
Starting with the analysis of the human branch, we see that there have been many differences between races on earth, for example black people in Africa have a strong physic which represents an advantage in doing hard jobs, or the natives in America with beautiful features and big knowledge of the nature. These varieties have influenced people’s behavior and thoughts of the world’s reality in each time. We can see as an example, that at the beginning, when the humankind felt the necessity of investigate and make an appropriation of the earth, international actors have interests on discovering new lands and learn from possible different cultures. They started traveling all around the world, arriving to new lands that were already inhabited by more developed cultures or at the opposite by cultures that, for being less developed, were also more vulnerable to being attacked and colonized, even when population’s physical characteristics were as strong as the Africans.
At this time, human thoughts were based on the growing, not only of the empires but also of their knowledge about the world were they lived; also the relations between nations were based on mutual recognition, acceptation and interaction. But after the discovery of new lands that were possibly richer in resources (human, cultural, physical), and because of human’s natural ambition, the wishes of territorial expansion to increase wealth and power appeared on International relations field. Human interactions’ development changed from the ones that used to be, to a new scenario based on the pretenses of the statesmen in increasing their power, without caring about the means they had to use, like violent acquisition of human, mineral, and land resources taken from any place they wanted, even if there were established any other nation.
In the cultural analysis, we can say that: “All cultures change through time. No culture is static. However, most cultures are basically conservative in that they tend to resist change. Some resist more than others by enacting laws for the preservation and protection of traditional cultural patterns while putting up barriers to alien ideas and things.”.
Culture represents one of the biggest and more important aspects in international relations because of the strongest link existing between humans’ behavior and humans’ believes. Both aspects influence each other and make the other possible, therefore sometimes it is difficult to maintain some interactions between the representatives of different traditions, because even if the culture is somehow “open” for new changes, there will be always some kind of resistance to accept the external ideas that are different from their believes and ways of behave.
In the history, culture’s differences have represented not only difficulties to maintain commercial or diplomatic relations, but also the reasons given by some actors to initiate wars as the one in the Middle East with the well known problem “land of promise”, that hasn’t been resolved and that also shows how different believes can influence the international relations’ scenario.
Finally the physical aspect of geography refers to all of the specific resources inside any territory. Since the mental expansion of the actors, and their capacity of extend their physical territory occurred, territory has become one of the most relevant points to understand the international system, due to the fact that it has become the place where all the relations are done, therefore land appropriation has become the biggest want of the international actors to control all new interactions and increase their power and recognition among other states.
Statesmen who have always looked for their benefits and profits in international interactions, understood that having richer territories with all kind of resources, and strategic locations, would let them achieve their personal goals, therefore all international policies in the different countries take in to account land and its characteristics to plan the nation behave in the international system. Therefore it is possible to see now that developed nations helped the developing ones to fulfill their necessity of power even if they don’t say it in a direct way.
To conclude, we have analyzed and proved that all human interactions are influenced somehow by some geographical aspects that are, were and will be always present in humankind evolution. Factors as the territory where we live, the culture that we have learned and our specific physical aspects, including behaves, are the ones that guide us in the international relations’ field. Therefore there is a big relationship between the two terms, and it is essential to study geography in the international system, to be able to be a conscientiously actor that participates actively in that big network, where all is connected.
This is the most commonly and basic methodology of loyalty program, which fits into any kind of business. Theearned points of customers translate into some reward which can be a freebie, a discount or customer treatment. Customers, to redeem their earned reward, will always move towards a certain amount of points. There are many companies which falter in this method but making the relationship between tangible rewards and earned points can be complex and confusing. For example: 14 points equals 1 dollar, and with 20 dollars one can earn 50% off in next purchase after some month. This is not rewarding but rather a headache to the customer. If one opt for a points-based loyalty program, one should keep the conversions intuitive and simple. Bolco is one example of a company which uses loyality program based on points. To make it convinient for their audience, they measure points in dollars, the reward for which is given in terms of food items. Customers can very well swipe their stylishBoloco cardat every purchase; the card automatically tracks the money spent. The program is such that, with expenditure of every $50, the customer earns a free item. It is of no relevance whether the customer choose a burger or an chocolate pie – it is free after $50. This cites an example of a company which is simplifying points by accessible reward system for customers. The most common loyality program but it is not applicable everywhere. It is most appropriate for certain businesses that favours short-term and regular purchases.
Use of Tier System to Reward Initial Loyalty
In case of designing loyality programs, The major challenge for most companies to to find a balance between attainable and desirable rewards. One of the ways to combat this so as to implement tiered system. The idea is to offer small rewards initially to be the part of the program as a base offering, then increase the rewards’ value as the customer climbs up the loyalty ladder, so as to foster repeat customers. This will help solve the problem of members forgetting about their points. Few customers are the victim of forgetfulness and they never redeem them because of a long time span between purchase & gratification.
Virgin Airlines’Flying Clubinducts members at the Club Red tier, then divides them into Club Silver and Club Gold. On one side, members of Club Red earn points on flights and they use the discounts on rental cars, hotels; members of Club Silver earn more 50% miles on flights, or expedited check in, or priority stand by seating. Other than this, members of Club Gold gets boarding on a priority basis, double miles, even they can use exclusive clubhouses where they get premium services like free drink or massage service while waiting for their flight. The idea over here is to provide benefits during the start itself so as to hook customers for repeat purchase. Once they do, they will realize that 'gold' status is not unattainable, and it offers really cool benefits.
The difference that lies between earning points and tiered systems is that customers derive short-term benefit in one whereas the other provides long-term value. But it is a fact that tiered programs work better for high commitment or higher price-point businesses like hospitality businesses, airlines or insurance companies.
Charging an Upfront Fee for providing VIP Benefits
Loyalty programs are supposed to break down barriers between customers and business. But the question is that if we should inform them that we chargethema fee. In some circumstances, a one-time annual fee can be charged that lets customers bypass common purchase blockers. It is beneficial for both business and customer in a similar fashion. A fee-based loyalty program can be customized to resolve the specific barriers that might influence a customer to leave.
In 2011,a trend of abandonment of ecommerce shopping cart rose to hit a record as high as 72%, and it is still rising. The cause of this was 'sticker shock' that involves the after tax and shipping prices. The biggest player of E-commerce, Amazon, devised a method to combat this particular issue arising in their loyalty program. The method was called ‘Prime’. Prime users receive 2-day free shipping on any number of products with no minimum purchase. This was among other benefits only for $79 annually fee.
This program is innovative as it charges loyal customers and provides sufficient for those frequent shoppers to realize that they are benefited from this program.It has been estimated by analyststhatfor each Prime subscriber, Amazon actually loses about $11 annually. But it manages it through increased transactional frequency that would not have happened if they hadn’t offered these exclusive benefits.
To summerize, this system is mainly applicable to businesses that involves frequent, repeat purchases. In return of an one time upfront fee, your customers could avoid the inconveniences that could have hindered their future purchases. Amazon has mastered this for e-commerce, but there is also potential of this loyalty program model to work for B2B.
Structure Non-Monetary Programs Around Your Customer's Values
To really understand your customer means to understand their values and worth. And depending on industry, customers may find more value in discounted or non-monetary rewards. Among all the companies that offer promotional coupons and discount codes, only those businesses providing value to the customer base in ways apart from direct monetary benefits have an opportunity to know their audience, really connect with them and sustain them for a longer period of time.
Patagonia is an eco-friendly outdoor apparel company that realized that the need of their customer is something more than just points or discounts that they get from a loyalty program. The company invented and implemented its ‘Common Threads Initiative’. They partnered with eBay for this initiative in which they help customers in online reselling of their highly durable Patagonia clothing, through the company website.
This program has dual advantage, firstly it builds on their brand of sustainability while creating a product of high quality, and secondly it matches perfectly with the company’s customer personality by delivering values that they actually care for. So a through research is essential before implementing any loyalty program of this nature. Then it needs to be designed with an understanding of in-depthcustomer pyschology
Partner with another Company so as to provide All-Inclusive offers
Strategic partnerships for customer loyalty / coalition programs, can be extremely effective for company growth and customer retention. Again, fully understanding customers’ every-day lives as well as their purchase habits is a good indicator to determine the company which will be a good fit as a partner.
One example is American Express. It has a huge base of partners with companies across the country. Their recent Twitter Sync campaignrewards customers for tweeting about them. The rewards are in form of discounts or some deals with Twitter #hashtags. Another example is Visibli.com whose cardholders have redeemed more than $2,000,000 as rewards. Participating companies that are also benefitting from their coalition with Amex which include Staples, Whole Foods, and Zappos.
For example, a dog food company, can partner with a veterinary office or with a pet grooming facility and they can in combination offer co-branded deals delivering mutual benefits both for company and customer. The target audience of the company obviously owns a dog, therefore any kind of service that dog requires offer certain added value from the company. When customers are provided with value beyond what the company can offer, it will show the company understands its customers, and the network grows to reach the partners’ customers.
Make a Game Out of It
All of us loves to play games. So, the loyality program is moulded in form of games to add fun factor and to encourage repeat customers. Also, depending on the type of game one choose, help solidify one’s brand's image.
Example - GrubHub, an online food ordering to delivery website, startedYummy Rummy. Once customers place 3 unique orders through GrubHub, and regardless of price, they gets to play a game and a chance of winning freebies. Players choose 1 of 4 cards and he/she has a 25 percent probability of winning a dessert, drink, gift card or other stuff for free of cost.
It’s very important that customers understand they are not duped out of rewards.The odds should not be lower than 25%; the purchase requirements to get a chance to play should be easily attainable.This kind of loyalty program has full potential to backfire but onlyif it creates a bad impression in customers and they feel like your company’s jerking them around to win profit. If it is executed properly, this kind of program could work for almost any types of company, even anoff the path B2B company. In case the targeted audience enjoys this, then he/she tends to purchase frequently. This kind of program can make the buying process much more fun and engaging.
A comprehensive overview of the organization
The Warehouse is one of the largest storage type supermarkets as well as the largest retailers in New Zealand. It was founded in 1982 by Stephen Tindall. As the largest retail group operating in New Zealand, its scope of business consists of mainly living necessities, from bedding to garden products,from automotive supplies to clothing tights,from the children's toys to pots and pans, and from the electronic game discs to mobile phones—everything is contained therein. It is dedicated to supplying cheap products and convenience for local people. Just like its slogan suggests, the Warehouse is “Where Everyone Gets A Bargain'. The main competitors in the retail market of the Warehouse include Kmart—the discount department stores, Farmers—the lowscale department stores, the Briscoes Group—the discounted sports and homeware store chainsand Super Cheap Auto—the automotive products. According to the latest data, the Warehouse now has 87 branches nationwide and has over 12000 employees all over New Zealand (TW Group, 2016). What’s more, it also has two logistics centers around the country (2016).
With the need of so many employees, the source of labor is also an important problem. Of course, as a member of the retail industry, most of the major workers in the supermarket are locally recruited.The wages of these workers are just ordinary local workers' wages. As we all know, most staff of the supermarket generally does not need strong professional skills. For the staff of these positions, what is the most important is the practical experience and pre job training.And this experience and the specific content of the training cannot be learned in the school.Supermarket employees do not need a high degree, but the accumulation of the experience of their work is very important, such as the ability to communicate.
In the current society, everything is developing rapidly.Economy, culture and technology are all in the rapid development of the potential of the thunder (Serge, 2015), especially the emergence of various new technology and their applications.They not only bring convenience to people and at the same time, they also put forward more challenges to many industries.Now the rapid development of the Internet makes many online shopping platforms active like they have never been.But many traditional industries, such as supermarket stores, have been influenced greatly.And the Internet is just the key technology to have negative impact on the Warehouse.If the the warehouse was still in accordance with the traditional mode that they would follow the prescribed order, undoutedly they would suffer a lot in front of these new technology.The new era brings new demands on them. Fortunately, the impact on retail supermarket of the development of science and technology relatively slow which earn them enough time to react according to the new requirement. They have got enough time and soon they find a solution to the new requirement — take on the online business world. They set up their own official website on the Internet, which is responsible for people's online shopping. People can easily browse the goods online that are excatly the same as the goods on the shelves.It not only meets the needs of customers, but also meets business challenges of the rapid development of the new era of science and technology.There is no doubt that entering the online retail market also puts forward new requirements for staff in the supermarket.Not only employees need to have a good network knowledge and be familiar with the solutions to some common network problems, but also the pre service training is more and more indispensable.
Organisational and Work Design
With good enough staff, the work process of the supermarket can be carried out smoothly.The working process of a supermarket is generally divided into ordering, tally, cashier, acceptance and return. And these processes still need to be based on traditional practices, one step at a time. So the impact of new technology on these works is not as big as others.Between every two of these various jobs are interrelated and they turn into a common bond. the work efficiency of the Orders have a great relation to the work efficiency of the tallymen,while the work efficiency of the tallymen directly results to if the goods in the supermarket are aboundant or not affecting the normal work of the cashier greatly.Anyway, all the work is linked to each other, ring by ring.Generally speaking, these jobs do not require a high degree of educational qualifications, but require emotionally intensive and to follow the demand of these new technology;do not require highly educated but have a direct relation to the experience of the work and technical requirements.
In many of these positions, core position is directly related to the interests of the entire company and the rise and fall of the entire company.For the retail industry such as supermarkets, sale assistant is undoubtedly the key to the entire working chain.Directly contact with customers, excellent sale assistant can make the company's interest income maximization.For the supermarket retail industry, the interests of the company directly related to the number of products which have been sold. And what’s more, sale assistant has a close contact with both customers and the goods. As it should be, sale assistant is definitely the core position of the whole work chain.
As what has said above, the core position means the most important position throughout the whole work chain. It is the key to the success of a business. The core position has a direct influence to the benefit and interest of the entire company as well as its employees.
The goods selling is the retail business life pivot. As a result, the sale assistant is at the core position in the supermarket. As the retailer industry, sale assistant stands in core position in the aspect of selling which is the key part of a supermarket. Sale assistants directly related to customers and are able to affect consumers 'willingness to purchase greatly. What’s more, it meets the retail organization strategy objective. Sale assistant has direct effect on the consequence of the profit of the whole firm. Therefore, it is a extremely important position. As such a significant position, sale assistant is undoubtedly of great importance as it should be(W. A. Laurie. E. M. Lang, and C. P. Groves, 2015). Thus the core position of should never be shaken in a supermarket like the Warehouse. The sale assistants is sure to be on core position in retail group system, it is the main program that implements supermarkets.
As the most important position in the Warehouse, sale assistant mainly have several following jobs. First, as a sale assistant, the most important thing to do is to greet customers to welcome them the time sale assistants see the customers and to assist customers and give them appropriate advice to help them to choose the very goods that best suits customers. Then, partly as a cashier, they need to check out desks, make sure that everything around the desk is going well and Keep store clean and tidy. What’s more, a sale assistant needs to have the ability of inventory control and management. And on the beginning of a work day, they need to receive and store stocks and stock shelves with goods to make sure all goods on the shelves enough for customers the whole day.
There is a saying that goes: 'The soldier who do not want to be a general is not a good soldier.” It is the same as a sale assistant who do not want a promotion to be a sale manager, a key holder or a supervisor is not a good sale assistant. Before career orientation, the only thing that matters to get a sale assistant a promotion is to be an excellent sale assistant who is far better than the others. Otherwise, he would just stay at the position of sale assistant forever. As for an excellent sale assistant, he has to be excellent on every aspect that related to his jobs(. For example, personally, he has to make sure to always turn up on time, physically fit, be passionate on work, has a good focusing and great attitude towards his work and moreover, loyal to the company where he works. What’s more, professionally, he may not need very high education but he has to be good at cooperative teamwork, developing and maintaining good relationships with colleagues, and most important of all, providing quality service. As a worker in a supermarket, he needs to be very flexible to change between daytime and night fill. And the last, if he wants to be a leader, he has to be a good problem solver and be reliable no matter what happen.
Being an excellent sale assistant is only the first step, there are still many desired developed behaviors , skills, knowledge and attitudes required that prepares for advancement into supervisory or manager positions.
First of all, personal ability and influence is essential for any advancement, let alone advancement into supervisory or manager positions. The basic job requirements of sale assistants have failed to meet the needs of a higher position.At a higher level, first of all, creativity is essential.Any industry needs creativity.From the traditional store mode to the online shop mode creativity.Store’s decoration needs creativity. The product purchase and sales methods also need creativity.These jobs will only be considered when a person is in the supervisory or manager positions.Even the best assistant sale don't have to think about it. Then, it is high responsibility。A man without a sense of responsibility will never success.No one will believe a man without a sense of responsibility. No one is willing to deal with a person who has no sense of responsibility.Only a serious and responsible work on their own to be able to guarantee a very good ability to complete any work. Then it is high service delivery skills.
That is to say to have the ability to train personnel.Only their own personal capacity can only be explained with the ability to complete a task, but can not explain the ability to have a leadership.A good leader is not only a person with outstanding ability, but also good at training new employees and delivering high service.Only in this way can a number of small things be taken care of by new employees and also can new employees get exercised.
Communication skills and interpersonal skills are also essential and important.Building good relationships is often an essential element of success. In Eastern philosophy, the relationship is productivity.In the west, relationships are the most scarce of business resources.Relationship is a very complicated concept, and it is also a complex social phenomenon.Therefore, the ability to exercise interpersonal skills is particularly important.No matter where and when, 'people are more easily to achieve something with acquaintance'--the unspoken rules are applicable.To succeed in your career, you must set up your own network of relationships.Only good at interpersonal communication, first of all, people is able to work well in a company and get a firm standing. Only good at interpersonal communication, secondly, people is able to coordinate the relationship among the other individuals and departments, and to deal with all kinds of difficult problems. Only good at interpersonal communication, finally, people is able to make coordination between himself and his subordinates, between himself and the boss and do any task with ease.Skills communication is indispensable in the establishment of good interpersonal relationships.When people interact with people, good at communicating always will help to success in establishing a good interpersonal relationship.
Secondly, there is the ability to deal with various disputes and problems and to solve all kinds of problems and conflict at any time.In the communication between people, it is inevitable that there will be a variety of problems,in particular, between the leaders and subordinates, as well as between colleagues and colleagues.Then there will be a variety of conflict. Conflict resolution skillAppears to be particularly important(Andrew Morton and Alex Milne, 2012). Only dealing with these contradictions perfectly can people work together better and strive for a common goal so as to effectively improve the performance on work. At work, even the same work can come up with a variety of unexpected problems, let alone every day's work is not the same.When one by one thorny problems comes out, as a leader, we must spare no effort to solve the problem. So problem solving skillis extremely important.And if thee thorny problems can be foresaw before these variety of problems even come out and to prepare and preventive measures in advance, it will save a lot of unnecessary trouble. So problem identification skills is also an assessment of sale assistant to make progress to managerial level.
The last but not the least, the skills that involves with leader, supervisory and manage-- leadership skills, supervisory skills, analysis skills, inventory management skills. These are the key point of the advancement to the managerial level. First of all, supervisory skill, needless to say, is essential for a leader. When the task is distributed, the leader is responsible for, first of all, analyzing of how the task should be completed. After the analysis of how the task is completed, there may be some problems that needs timely response measures. And that is analysis skills. After the completion of the task, implement the unified arrangements for the task andarrange the task to the general staff. And leaders are responsible for the supervision of the completion of the task and doing a unified guidance. This is supervisory skills. And for a group within a company or a company, it needs to be managed. this is inventory management skills. Good at using his own unique and effective way to manage the company, not only for his own leadership to increase the charisma of the team can also make the team more united and maximize the effectiveness of the company.
Would you consider your country of origin to be multicultural? Why or why not?
Along with China's accession to the WTO, China's cultural diversity better integrated into the world culture, and at the same time, which is mainly composed of strong western culture is further the impact of other cultures around the world. In addition, Great development of the Internet and use, plus the flow of a large number of immigrants, let the world into a 'global village', in the process of Internet use and migrant flows, the global formed diversified cultural world. But, like many countries in the world, as a multinational country with 56 nationalities, China also faces the diversity of culture process. Now the economic life of the Chinese nation in the cultural diversity under the framework of the integration, formed mutually promote the common development of the pattern of common prosperity. Therefore, this article would like to explore whether China considered being multinational.
Define the “problems” of sociology
National holidays are in cold but western festivals are hot enough
In recent years, many western festivals are like valentine's day ', 'April fool', 'Christmas' and so on. Valentine's day 'and' mother's day 'in China, on the surface, is a kind of human nature of the resonance (the pursuit of love, affection is our common humanity), but in essence, it is especially popular with the younger generation about western culture and identity. In the current pattern of Chinese and western cultural exchange, western culture, especially American culture is strong, McDonald's, Hollywood, Microsoft, green card, American English is a powerful temptation to young Chinese. Westerners are not keen to have our' Spring Festival ', 'Mid-Autumn festival', 'Dragon Boat Festival', because these festivals for them is a madrassa reflected, no root of wood, no cultural significance of handing down, but the more important reason, is originated from the cultural pattern of this asymmetry. 'the double ninth festival' is the day for the old in China, 'respect' should also be above classes, super race, why the west is not interested in the foreigner?
Festival has a certain cultural connotation, is a national cultural symbol, it accumulated national beliefs, ethics, emotions, and much other content. It is like language, ethnic cultural inheritance, the most important way to communicate feelings, solidarity. Accept a season means the identification of different levels of the culture; The stronger the independent consciousness of the feast, the stronger the corresponding cultural identity. If a majority of Americans are keen on the day and cold traditional festivals, people have felt the atmosphere of the traditional festival is becoming more and more light), to carry forward national traditional culture, rouse national spirit, enhance national cohesion and identity and no benefit. Further, if one day, most of the Chinese people to speak a foreign language, we eat western food, western festival, watching western film pride for pleasure, afraid of the Chinese nation, it will be dangerous (Harington, 2016).
The definition of multicultural
Culture first is multiple level, it includes three levels: first level is the most basic cultural level, the way of life, habits, customs, etc., and its applicable field is a People's Daily lives, this level is everyone's right to choose the diversity of culture is free and diverse, it's the bottom line is not in violation of the provisions of laws and not damage the interests of others and right; The second level of culture is a system of culture, and its applicable space is the social public life field, it's the bottom line is that 'democracy', namely the system stipulated by the management of social power and make the system power is derived from the agreed to most citizens (EGAN & BENDICK, 2008). The diversity of its performance to reflect the diversity of the basic principles of the democratic system, rather than the diversity of democracy and the democratic system, it is a social or the system guarantee of the national cultural diversity; The third level of culture is the spiritual culture, including the values, ethical, moral, knowledge system, scientific research, ideological theory and belief and so on, its scope of application is social and individual value judgment, conduct, knowledge, culture, way of thinking and spiritual life, it is the basic principle of freedom of expression and freedom of choice, the bottom line is don't damage the social public interests and others' right to freedom of expression and freedom of choice. It is the highest level of human culture. Its various performances are various values, knowledge system, thought and theory and belief of 'flowers' and 'schools of thought contend', or 'multiple resonance'. Former French President Giscard said: before China can output values, will not become a real superpower. Actually what he said here 'values output' refers to the third level all original cultural achievements were the rest of the world and people's choice. The vast majority of 'historical resources', 'wealth' from the second and third level of original culture.
The diversity of the Chinese nation culture by religious beliefs, thoughts and values, customs and habits and patterns of behavior (Begaliyevaet.,al, 2016).
Present major theories or ways of looking at society and distinguish between scientific and non-scientific ideas.
Darren has stated in LUCAS (2015) that:
1. The degree of social conflict intensity: refers to the conflict in terms of energy consumption, and the degree of involvement in the conflict, whether people safety into certain conflict is big or small, and so on.
Intensity: refers to fight both sides to pursue their interests.
2. The factors influencing the intensity of conflict: corporate overlapping degree, the authority relationship with other remuneration distribution related degree, the degree of social mobility.
3. The factors influencing the intensity of the conflict: the deprivation of social economy condition, the adjustment of the conflict.
4. The types of social conflict:
(1) reality conflict: refers to those due to the relationship of some demands were not met and did to other participants income due to valuation and occurring in the course of conflict, or purpose lies in the pursuit of have no goal conflict.
(2) The fabulist conflict: conflict is refers to the at least one party for the 'need to release tension' launched by the conflict.
5. In-group conflict: conflict that takes place within the group. Characteristics:
(1) The intensity of in-group conflict personality into some of its members.
(2), the positive enthusiasm to participate in community life member of the group of 'traitor' will take more violent reaction.
(3) Group for internal heresy molecular reaction sometimes more hostile than change.
6. The relief valve system: is a kind of social security mechanism, and most powerful example of evidence of the conflict has the positive function.
Analyze and evaluate these approaches to the explanation of the way in which society is organized
Government should clearly know that when western products and services to the Chinese consumption have inevitably exerts a subtle accepted western culture idea and way of life. The Chinese government has been committed to build a prosperous country and harmonious social environment, why don't conform to the trend of The Times and adapt to public opinion demands for cultural diversity? From our overseas Chinese to maintain the purity of Chinese traditional culture and continuity can be easily judge, 'cultural diversity threats the cohesion and centripetal force' of Chinese traditional culture idea is completely unnecessary.
Question the way one looks at one’s own society and what we consider is ‘normal’.
From the perspective of culture, can the folk customs, lifestyle, life habit, network media and pop songs, all things are related to People's Daily life into the category of culture, so Chinese folk culture in fact already diversified. Since China's mainstream ideology admitted that China is a multi-ethnic and customs of different countries, know that now culture keep pace with people's increasingly diversified cultural needs, but why not advocate make multiculturalism? The government's main concern is the 'erosion' of western culture. McDonald's, KFC, Starbucks, nestle, Coca Cola, Nike, western consumer brands such as the United States Hollywood blockbusters don't the cultural carrier, too? Without these, the Chinese young consumers would not have valentine's day, Thanksgiving and Christmas.
In summary, Chinese cultural diversity is a reality, it displays in two aspects: one is the diversity of national culture, 56 ethnic groups have their own unique tradition, has its own cultural characteristics; Second, the diversity of regional culture, China's vast territory, different wind in different customs, and various areas all have their own cultural characteristics. Even the same nationality, in different parts of the customs and language also has bigger difference. More typical is the nationality culture, north and south, east and west culture difference is very big, the eight dialect differences than many national language differences.
In general,culture refers to a community or a group with which you share your common experiences that design the way you look at the world.A person can belong to several different cultures,depending on his or her birth place;nationality;family status;age;profession;palce of work and his coorporate culture.Culture is the backbone of every community,on which u stand to view the world.It is core to what u look at,how u figure out what u see and how u interact with others.
Communication and exploring different cultures is quite possible and simple,only when u become concious about cultural differences.At times when you find yorself puzzled,ask yourself how culture may be designing your own ideas and try to see the world from others perspective.Culture is not only about sharing knowlwdge and ides among each other,but also sharing feelings and emotions in the society.It consists of principles,ethics and moral values.Every culture is unique in its own way and is the most delicate process of learning the behaviour and the way of living in the society.Clture does not have any boundries,but gets affected by surroundings.Everyone always adopts and follows the culture,where he/she brought up.It gives a unique personality and identity in the society.Every cultue is different to others,they have their own values,patterns and principles through which people communicate with others.
Objective of the study:
How can we improve communication in business
How to overcome communication barriers
How can we deal with cultural shock
How to manage cross cultures
How to deal with others cultures
Findings: Culture plays a very important role in maintaining the descipline in the society.It is not only sharing the ideas and knowledge between the people,but also sharing the feelings and emotions among the people in the society.with the help of cultures,we can make a sense of what we see and how we present ourselves.Their are four cultural dimensions,directness ,hierarchy,consensus and individualism.
Cross-culture: people from different cultural backgrounds communicate and lead to,what is called cross culture communication.They visit different places and find different cultures from their places,find things which differ from their cultures,such as different traditions,food etc.and when they try to adopt something from new cultures,that leads to cultural exchange.
Some cultural differences,such as different communication methods,approach to conflict,working styles and different management styles.
Taking the examples of Brazil,Russia,India and China(BRIC)these are the fastest growing economies of the world.Organisations,who want to establish a presence in these countries,have to understand the cultural norms and working styles and how they shape the working design.Culture and humanity of an individual is being recognised by good work environment and leads to the acknowledgement of some habitats being universal.with the help of technology,companies expand their businesses into international markets.companies must take into account,the local politics on the bussiness ;cultural issues,e.g,how to overcome differences about cost,quality,service and process and merging of local culture and working style with the corporate standards,e.g;attitudes and social norms about information sharing.Before a company can engage at the level of culture,it much first understand the culture of the country in which it is conducting business.BRIC and the four cultures they represent(latin,Eastern European,Indian and Assian)are well worth understanding.These countries cover more than quarter of the world’s land area and more than 40 persent of the worlds population.
The workplace environment in Brazil changing.low height walls are being constructed by the modern companies to promote interaction and increase everyone’s access to daylight.Communication between employes and their seniors depend on the education level.Government has set up certain rules including working hours.If an employee been asked to leave the company and the case brought before the labor tribunal,the entry and exit records of the x-employe would be evaluated.
There are lot of cahnges in the working environment in Russia,moving from a centrally planned and globally isolated economy to globally integrated and market based economy.Being too separate,however is still considered a negative in Russia where the community takes procedence over the individual.management often takes important decisions without the involvement of staff,while many senior management personals many not like to give up responsibility,many juniors fear taking it.
The Indian workplace still has a long way,before the workplac e is completely modernized.Indian local traditional offices are not designed in proper way,and are outdated and not ergonomic.Large companies have a different story alltogether,and are much more flexible in their approach to management.The Chinese work culture is like a family of sorts,with the boss being the patriarch of the company.Employee respect the leaders who are responsible for exact hierarchael structure of the company
When people move from their family culture to another culture,and fails to understand the different cultures leads them to a cultural shock.It includes the shock of new people,places,traditions,food,climate ets;and have to learn the different ways of adapting themselves in other cultures.It also includes the isolation from their families and relatives,with the result,small things or mistakes disturb them.
Indicators of culture shock:
1.Reduction in performance
2.Feeling of loneliness
Chanllanges of cross culture communication:
World has multicultural population,and in the modern era,managing across cultures is not an easy job.In some countries the emegrants face hallanges while interatcing with local population,but it differs in some cases as well.There are some negative aspects of cross culture ,known as challenges in cross culture comminication.Cross culure communiaction becomes easy when two cultures have same cultural similarities.Some people face chalanges in adopting other cultures,because of some disimilarities from their wun cultures The common challenges of cross culture communication are,communication,custom and relligion,lack of public support,lack of desired technology,unawareness etc.Communication is one of the major problems,which a person faces in a new culture.Every country has its own culture and some countries use common languages.Every culture has their own customes and traditions.Also few people come across to people whome they can communicate properly even though if they belong to different cultures.Consultants from large frims don’t believe in the value of multi model values,instead they implement their international sensitiveness to train employees.To support managers and organisations working in different international destinations,consultants have explored new directions in cross-culture management by making them knowledgeble about the practices of cross culture collaboration.
Advantages and disadvantages of cross clture communication
Advantages:People adapt new habits and learn new cultures,leading to development of mutual understanding.It also helps in development of new relations among the people from different cultural backgrounds.interaction among different groups from different cultues takes place at work or at some places of socialisation.People tend to learn and adopt new cultures.
Disadvantages:In some circumstances people are being underestimated and wrong judgement takes place by some anarchies.It also develops misunderstanding,possibilities of miscommunication and in some cases people are unable to understand feeling and emotions of others.
Cross culture communication guidelines:
Always try to learn and adjust in new cultures,respect all the religions,always be ready to listen and accept the challenges that you face while communication with people from diferent cultures.one should never draw any comparisons among different cultures with any bad intensions that leads to conflicts among people.Always probe in case you face difficulties in understanding and watch and react appropriately.
Culture in brief can be reiterated as analysis of behaviours,habits,living styles,food habits,reacting and responding actions and different ways of approachment in the society.At the same time its very comprehensive and complex term to describe in short conclusion.In business managing across cultures palys vital role and people adopting positive attitude and increase awareness among themselves helps to overcome the communication barriers.Their is a strong relationship between cross culture communication and success of business among the cross cultures
多所全球学术水平最高、名气最盛的中学及大学均源自英国，寄宿学校 Harrow School、牛津大学、剑桥大学、LSE 等，每年均吸引数以万计的入学申请。根据51due的经验，较早前往英国读书的学生，因为流利的英语能力及丰富的课外活动经验，在升读顶尖学府时会更有优势，成功机会也会更高。
In order to attract more customers, advertisers have adopted every possible simulative factor in making ads, such as sound, light, colors, cartoon films and human performance. For instance, to advertise a certain food, advertisers will ask an actor or actress to sit at a table and devour the seemingly delicious food while they film him or her.
更多句型：To take … as an example, One example is…, Another example is…, for example
2.做比较：写完一个要点之后，比较与之相似的；写完另一个要点之后，再比较与之相反的。世界上没有同样的指纹，也没有相同的树叶，文章亦同；所以只有通过比较，我们才能发现二者的相同点（through comparison）和不同点（through contrast）。下面是一些词组，供大家学习参考：
相似的比较：in comparison, likewise, similarly, in the same manner
相反的比较：on the other hand, conversely, whereas, while, instead, nevertheless, in contrast, on the contrary, compared with …, …
3.换言之 : 当我们没话说了的话，可以换一句话再说，这样可以让我们的文章再多一些字，或者文邹邹地说是让读者更充分理解我们的观点也行。实际上就是重复重复再重复！下面的例子实际上就三个字：
I love you!I am enthusiastic about you. That is to say, I love you.I am wild about you. In other words, I have fallen in love with you.
另一个例子：I cannot bear it.
可以用词组表达：I cannot put up with it.
因此可以这样说：I cannot bear it. That is to say, I cannot put up with it or I am fed
up with it.
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.