Risk management involves an individual who will handles or manage delicate situation in an organization which involves the staffs, clients and even the facility and able to solve it. A purpose means significance or importance therefore a risk manager is a must in a firm and be able to have the power or authority in all areas specifically the function of each areas and coordinates with them so that stability will be imposed within.
There are five purposes of a Risk management First, to identify a possible risk involves the question what could be the risk? This means that in risk management there should be awareness of something bad or unpleasant things might happen and able to identify what are those. The safety and security, quality control and budget also involves in a firm must also be distinguished. Second, is to reduce or allocate risk involves the question how can it be minimize? This means a risk manager should be prepared to give answer or have a solution that will arise and that has a plan on how it will be minimize or lessen the risk. Third, Guided decision making this involves set of action or goals of solution to be applied to answer a problem but be sure to take the advantage and disadvantages of each or the pros and cons as well so you will determine what must be applied in the firm. Fourth, provide logical grounds for planning means have an evaluation to plan things that are rational, and be sure that all are abiding the rules and regulation. Objectives of the firm should be considered. An example if there is proposal given review all the cause and effect of it then choose the best. Lastly, prioritization means to know very first things to be done or the most important one to be solved. An example in a situation that requires more attention like there’s a patient with a very high fever with bruises and severe migraine and so the high fever must have first remedy in place to avoid convulsion. In addition, have a list of all the weakness and strengths of the enterprise.
In a nut shell, a risk manager must be prepared at all times in possible risk that may encounter in the firm with a great idea of solution and so communication within the firm should be done to have less opportunity of mistakes in the future. All levels of structures must functions well within an enterprise as well.
A benefit means a good or boost result of something done. In all aspect of organization a benefit of risk management will bring asset to the company and may become the edge among the group. In order to earn it, a passion and dedication in the assigned task must be fulfilled.
In risk management there are the following benefits first, supports strategic business planning; a risk manager can bravely endures response in organized manner especially in emergency situation furthermore, resourcefulness and time- management is included. Also, present all perspective strengths and weaknesses of the company and then have the possible answers through modification.
With this, survival of the company is a benefit for the risk manager. Second, promotes continuous improvement meaning it is a big help to a risk manager to have an endless advance of ideas or thinking for possible challenges or struggles that may encounter the firm. It implies here, the alertness and cautiousness and the saying “prevention is better than cure”. Third, is the quick grasp of near opportunities, the risk manager must be familiarize with the history background, the current situation and the future plans of the company so when changes knocks whether in difficult or easy way expect lights on the risk. With this, implies the saying the “opportunity knocks once”, and so better to grab ideas that depends upon the favourable juncture for the whole system or section of the enterprise. Fourth, it enhances communication between units, that in every firm there are different units or sectors with their specific function that a risk manager should communicates and coordinates with one another to put on confidence and the ability that they will feel the acquaintance and accommodation of the risk management that will make the staffs easy to discuss matters towards their concern and be able to give proper address and the best ways to solve it. With this, harmonious relationship within the firm will develop and trust will be gained that will bring teamwork that can lead to grasp of the objective and be implemented. Lastly, reassuring stakeholders meaning in risk management will bring guarantee to the owners or cooperates that everything is functioning properly and well handled. Give assurance that all is well monitored from machines, personnel and building structures to attract more investors and even clients too.
I therefore conclude that in risk management it implies a mutual relationship. It is a give and take relationship within the firm to achieve the success. Teamwork and socialization are beneficial factors to be efficient in risk management. There must be unity and open to ideas of others to have the great answer in every question.
a. Reviewing of Activities and Internal Environment.
In risk management, reviewing of activities and internal environment is a critical inspection or examination should be done that surrounds the firm. It includes the conditions, situations and influences for the external factor and the internal factor. The internal factors in a hospital are the staffs and the clients otherwise the patients are the external. Coordinates to every part of the department in the organization to be able to review what are necessary works that lacks or needed for the satisfaction of the client.
b. Setting objectives
In risk management setting objectives is to be familiar in the objectives or aim of the company. Perception and experience may help. As a risk manager appoint or assign level of plans but make sure that it correlates within the objective of the owner. Consider not only one’s part but the total welfare aimed by the firm. Simply, have a goal that does not contradicting or conflicting the main goal to avoid worst probability output.
c. Event identification
This is the first step in risk management the event identification which is to know what is happening in the company. Be prepared, address it properly to the person and have a right plan procedure for unwanted events for the company. Plan well not to break down.
d. The Impact and Likelihood of Risk
In risk management the impact and likelihood of risk implies a list all the influence of the length and depths of priority involve and classified it which must come first or done first. This will resolve many possibility of high and low risk may be in terms of cost or budget of the firm or performance will be a boost.
e. Risk Response Plan
In risk management, risk response plan means if there is a risk take an action at once so be prepared to answer query or question based on facts and ideas. Have plans to fix things to be efficient and able to save time, energy and monetary. Several organized reserve solution must be applicable so be ready at all times.
f. Control Activities
Control Activities means it is an element of risk management that all exercises are governed and measure defending the company by controlling the appearance of risk. This is essential in lessening troubles. An example is to be resourceful in organizing a recreational activity that fits the company.
g. Information and Communication.
These factors information and communication in risk management are informing people meaning lending data of knowledge and for communication is to transmit this information. It goes together first to gather and collect new ideas to be aware and be advance in what are the latest issues or events maybe in technology or policy and then through message like chatting, and talking will give a great impact with one another.
In risk management, monitoring this is the vital element among all because it is applicable to all like in reviewing activities, setting of objectives; identifying the event may come and impact, proper response in risk, controlling activities and informing and communicating. It is the main and primary concern used in budget, addressing complaints, and time.
At the end of the day, components or factors of risk management are very beneficial. It affects each other within the company. It involves the personnel, the equipments everything that it takes an opportunity perhaps, a risk management is learning, interaction, monitor and sharing messages at all times in order to work freely with unity and within it will result or have a finale to have less mistakes or human errors in the future giving the best ruling in risk management.
The workplace is a solid contributor to mental welfare, giving people the opportunity to feel dynamic and attain their potential. In spite of that it can also be a tense environment that contributes to the increase of mental health problems and illnesses such as depression and anxiety. With most adults spending more of their waking hours at work than anywhere else—and with many youth holding at least part-time jobs— tackling issues of mental health at work is extremely vital for Mauritians.
How workplace affects health?
Increasingly, it is well-known that the place of work itself has a prevailing influence on people’s health. When people are pleased with their job, they are more prolific and tend to be healthier. When employees sense that the atmosphere at work is negative, they feel tense. Stress has a huge influence on employee mental and physical wellbeing, and in turn, on efficiency.
Consultant Graham Lowe has identified five components of workplace culture that directly influence employees’ health and the wellbeing of the corporation overall—credibility, respect, fairness, pride, and camaraderie. The principal idea is that companies must truly care about the health of their employees.
Companies nowadays who aim to attract and retain good workers have leaders who believe in the relationship between employee satisfaction and employee health and consider that place of work wellness is a business policy. Their management practices consist of making equitable demands on time and energy, involving employees in decision making, rewarding work well done, honest communication, and offering assistance to balance work and home life.
Employers understand that workers are searching for jobs that remunerate well, have excellent benefits and include brilliant health and safety plans. In today’s competitive employment market, it is becoming more important than ever for companies to improve job satisfaction and make sure that workers like being on the job. Workplace wellness benefits both employers and employees.
Strengths and Weaknesses of Health and Wellness programs.
In Mauritius, most Employers’ wellness programs imply just include a gym in the office or posters on the wall that encourage people to be fit. But more companies are using real money, and occasionally penalties, as encouragement for workers to get in shape nowadays.
Nearly 60% of employers propose wellness incentives, or financial rewards to employees who succeed in getting healthier.
Employers in Mauritius are still studying different models to improve employees' health, reducing claims costs and receiving improved returns on their wellness finances.
We shall have a look at the pros and cons of popular kinds of corporate wellness incentive programs being used today.
Companies propose rewards for effecting activities that consist of an assessment of their personal health and risk factors. These can vary from answering a survey about family medical record, diet and fitness routine, to taking a biometric test for cholesterol, blood pressure and other factors. Worthy Incentives can get about 65% - 100% of employees to participate. Smaller rewards than that tend to motivate in the range of only 30% to 50%, experts say.
PROS:Experts state that straightforward activities are an excellent way to initiate employees to healthy behavior and their own risk factors. Companies can also use the data know what their workers' health requirements are.
CONS: Informing people about their risks and providing them advice won't automatically encourage them to respond positively.
EXAMPLE:Orange Business Services in Mauritius twice a year offers free Eye, Ear and Bone consultation, where experts are hired and consult at Orange Business Services’ office in Ebene.
To win rewards, and occasionally avoid penalties, employees are required to undertake activities to ameliorate their health after going through a health assessment, for example joining a weight-management program or follow ting a preventive screening.
PROS:The model encourages employees to change their unhealthy habits.
CONS:The incentives don't promote healthy habit beyond the completion of the required programs.
EXAMPLE: Not yet implemented in Mauritius, but abroadHouston city employees must finish three tasks to hinder a $25 monthly payroll extra: complete a health-risk assessment, take a biometric screening and either speak to a health instructor, enroll for a program like Weight Watchers or have a screening. As a result, 90% of employees have completed three of the tasks or more.
Companies propose motivation for a range of tasks; the more complicated and valuable the task, the larger the prize.
PROS:Employees enjoy the liberty to opt for their health activities, from trail running to martial arts lessons, rather than having to have a conversation with a doctor or join an official program to get the reward. A wellness program that sets out an exciting trail to pursue will get more people involved.
CONS:Too many choices can confuse employees, and companies can misuse money on programs that will not efficiently tackle workers' biggest health issues.
EXAMPLE:Apex Fund Services offers as much as Rs2500 for a range of activities from teeth cleaning to completing the “Dodo trail Mauritius”.
Employers offer rewards for taking steps to hit optimal benchmarks for cholesterol, blood pressure and weight. Steps can consist of enrolling in a weight-management program and reaching optimal body mass.
PROS:Employees are financially motivated to improve their health, instead of getting reprimanded for not being perfect, says Paul Terry, CEO of StayWell Health Management, which organizes company wellness programs.
CONS:Gratifying employees for just completing a wellness program doesn't imply that they will really get healthier, and there's a lengthy path to reduce a 'morbidly obese' body mass index of 40 to a healthy under-25.
Companies attach incentives and penalties to health metrics, with workers paying more until they hit standard cholesterol, blood pressure and body mass index levels.
PROS:Experts state this model is successful in making people independently improve the ir health.
CONS:Critics consider that this model could be inequitable and reduce access to health care. Legally, employers must provide workers who don't achieve objectives an additional way to receive the incentive, for example a doctor's letter or program participation, so experts say employees might never reach the goal.
Companies analyze employees' health-risk, claims and additional information —or have the insurer or an expert company in data analysis, do it—to propose tailored wellness programs and incentives.
PROS:Experts say that tailoring wellness programs according to each employee enhances participation among those who will gain the most.
CONS:Some employees consider personalized interventions are invasive and compromise privacy.
Identifying possible challenges to implement Health & Wellness programs in Mauritius.
Each workplace has its particular array of challenges and possible barriers that can hinder the creation of a workplace wellness initiative. These challenges could appear from all levels of the organization, from employees to superior management.
Examples of organizational challenges:
2.Relationship between management and employees
5.Resources requirements of program
6.Employee job agenda
7.Flexibility of working days
9.Staff participation in decision making
Healthcare costs have been steadily rising for the past four decades and present a major challenge in benefits administration. As a result, executing strategies to contain escalating healthcare costs has become a business imperative for today’s companies. Employers in Mauritius have always until now taken a number of steps — downsizing, moving to less expensive plan options, and shifting costs to employees — in an attempt to contain rising healthcare costs. But according to HR/benefits decision makers, these strategies can have a negative impact on employee morale and job satisfaction.
More employers appear to be adopting employee health and wellness programs as a way to promote employee health and rein in healthcare costs.
英国Dissertation代写论文精选：“Supply Chain Management dissertation”，这篇论文主要讲述了企业管理中供应链管理的重要性。文章指出，信息系统在全球供应链管理(SCM)中发挥着极大的优势，对于利润获得有极大的影响。所以，为了使供应链管理是有效的，供应商和客户必须密切合作，以实现真正的集成业务流程、提高整个供应链的效率、降低库存，从而降低整个供应链的成本。
The process of globalisation continues to increase the competitive pressures on all firms. Those who wish to lead the market have to continue to raise the bar in terms of operating in the most efficient possible manner. One key area for companies today is how they manage particular or own SC activities via the increasing utilisation of Information Systems (IS).
The scope of think over on to research a role of Information System within global supply chain management (SCM) and understand advantages and profits it fetches. Results showed that in order make SCM to be effective, suppliers and customers must work in close collaboration together to truly integrate their business processes.
From the results of the analysis undertaken, it has been concluded that using IS throughout the Supply Chain increases efficiency by reducing inventories, which in turn reduces costs to the entire Supply Chain, but also adds significant value from the end customer's perspective. Furthermore, the use of IS throughout a Supply Chain enables better speed of response to unpredictable demand
APPENDIX A: PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION METHODS 57
List of Abbreviations
SC = Supply Chain
S-A = Sigma-Aldrich
SCM = Supply Chain Management
MNC = Multinational Company
SME = Small to Medium Enterprise
IS = Information System
E-commerce = Electronic Commerce
B2B = Business to Business
B2C = Business to Customer
EDI = Electronic Data Interchange
ERP = Enterprise Resource Planning
MRP = Material Requirement Planning
MRPII = Manufacturing Resource Planning
POS = Point of Sale
MPS = Master Production Schedule
CRP = Capacity Requirement Planning
RFID = Radio Frequency Identification
APS = Advanced Planning & Scheduling
APO = Advanced Planner and Optimiser
SCC = Supply Chain Cockpit
ATP = Available-to-promise
CPFR = Collaborative planning, forecasting & Replenishment
Over the past ten years, retailers and suppliers invested huge capital in reducing the occurrences, where customers cannot find right products in stores. This has created a serious problem in retail and other industries (Collins, 005). Gerry Jastremski (Gillette & Co) reported that this serious problem is causing a $69 billion loss for top retail companies. Recent studies revealed more than 70 percent companies face the same problem that their customers cannot find the products they want to buy in stores due to out of-stock mostly because of inappropriate supply and forecasting of products (Gruen, Corsten et al 2002). When more focused on markets during special offers and sales campaigns, the probability of finding desired product is always one in five times ratio when customers visit the store. As a result, customers change their mind and delay their purchase or look for alternative brand's products. Thus retailers will not achieve their targeted ROI (return of investment) and customer loyalty goes down. Though organizations and big companies wish to solve the above problem but disruptions are unavoidable.
The most efficient way to manage and maintain the stock in stores is through Supply Chain Management (SCM). Supply chain with globalisation created fresh/modern era in the market environment in recent days. Businesses in today's market are increasingly considering global atmosphere. Organizations need to be completely aware of external factors like economic trends, competitive and technological innovations at home and abroad markets, which affect their ability to grow and sustain. Globalisation means, a product can be developed in China, manufactured in UK and sold in USA. This process of globalisation shows the need and urgency for organizations to change the way in which their logistical and operational activities are managed, explainingthe the concept of Supply Chain Management (SCM).
Simple Supply chains were designed in the past using paper, pen and calculators. As business process and supply chain networks grew more complex in nature (Christopher, 2005) it became more difficult and impossible to manage SC activities without appropriate technological support. Its quite impossible to receive an effectuate and efficient SCM without IS/IT tools (Gunasekaran, Ngai. 2005).
Background/Supply Chain System
In 21st century for achieving the global organizational competitiveness, Supply Chain Management System has evolved. Organizations are trying to find ways of increasing their competitiveness, responsiveness and flexibility by changing their operational strategies, technologies and methods which include the implementation of SCM (Gunasekaran, Ngai, 2003). SCM is an approach for companies to integrate their activities in the changing market requirements which improve company's agility level and dynamic nature.
Through the view of Simchi Levi (2000) “SCM is bunch of addresses to effectuate gather suppliers, store & warehouses, manufacturers so that trade is created and dilivered at the right quantities, to the right locations and at the right time in order to minimize system wide cost while satisfying service level requirements'' (cited in Gunasekaran, Ngai, 2005). Supply chains created a viable way for satisfying customer's needs around the world. What is a Supply Chain? SC is a strategy introduced in organizations to enhance the ways of distributing the products from the firms to end consumers. It is all about purchasing raw materials, developing them into products and distributing those finished goods to customers with the help of intermediate sources. Janyashanker, Stephen (1996) defined supply chain as ‘'a network of autonomous or semi autonomous business entities collectively responsible for procurement, manufacturing and distribution activities associated with one or more families of products''. Due to greater demand of products and high global competition of firms resulted in implementing Supply Chain.
In another words supply chain is the movement of substances or products as they drive through their origin point to the end customer. SC includes manufacturing, purchasing , warehousing, customer service, transportation, supply planning, demand planning and supply chain management. It is the involvement of the people, information, activities involved in moving products from its supplier to customer. Affective management of the supply chain can be a real challenge though definition sounds very simple.
Example of a Supply Chain:
A very well SC flow of goods is shown above. In some cases, the product is shipped from the Manufacturer to the distribution centre as soon as it is manufactured. In other cases, such as spoke model and Hub the product is held at the manufacturer once produced and on only on the requirement it is sent to the distribution centre.
In reality, every step in Supply Chain activity has complex calculations during the globalisation process; however this increases business efficiency and brings benefits to the organization on greater scales. So the Supply Chain activities must be well planned, organized meticulously as efficiency plays major role and advantageous in competitive markets (Bartlett et al. 2007). Activities in Supply Chain entail purchasing raw materials, converting into bulk or finished products and sending those products to various warehouses / distribution centres. They are then directly or indirectly delivered to 1st tier customers who add further more value to the end customers. The activities like planning and delivery should be managed and coordinated well in terms of both time and place. IS or software tools which have been developed all these years to manage these activities - have evolved and became increasingly specialized. Hence organizations need to understand and carefully select the IS tools that are best suited to their needs.
1. Integrated Behaviour
2. Mutually Sharing Information
3. Mutually Sharing Risk And Rewards
5. The Same Goal and The Same Focus on Serving Customers
6. Integration of Processes
7. Partners to Build and Maintain Long-Term Relationship
SCM allows the organizations to manage numerous relations in SC for ongoing business process, for which IS plays a major role. Sanders (2005) says that ‘'IS/IT which permits for the transmission and processing of information useful for synchronous decision making between organisations can be viewed as backbone of SC business structure.'' As a result organizations started using IS especially SCM systems in order to have closer contacts with suppliers and vendors and to reduce problems in SC activities.
Though technology is growing and investigating new methods to solve SC problems, Maguire (2000) states: The IS community faces a paradox: despite impressive advances in technology, problems are more abundant than solutions; organizations experience rising cost instead of cost reduction. IS misuse and rejection are more frequent than acceptance and use''. Major factor that leads IS to a failure is alignment between IS and the organization that is applied in. However there is a paucity of research in IS when efficiency is considered.
Even though there is a SCM system for reducing problems in SC, but still it is not efficient. And due to lack of collaboration between different departments in the organizations, information is not shared exactly for targeted tasks. Though sophisticated technologies have been introduced to reduce problems, due to employee's misuse and resistance, efficiency is being reduced. In this project we will discuss how technology (SAP) is being used in an organization and what problems have been identified. More over in this report enhancement has been investigated on SC. The reason for choosing SCM with SAP is due to the complexity of system that operates as a chain between suppliers and vendors. And also nature of the case is too complex as the organization has businesses with numerous suppliers and vendors internationally. One more reason for selecting this case and topic is the researches founded an opportunity to investigate how the SC activities are managed in the organization and problems existing in the usage of the SAP. The reason SAP is selected: It is a powerful tool for integration purposes and also researcher's personal interest in acquiring more knowledge about SAP technology.
Aims and Objectives
This examination sets out to carry the investigation and the factual goal of the dissertation is- To understand the ways in which the information technology or Information systems (IT/IS) are able to find the management of global Supply Chains (SC). In order to achieve these aims the following objectives have been set:
1. To broaden knowledge by researching in two main areas i.e., Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Information Systems or Technologies that are specifically designed to be used in SC.
2. To do research and understand how Supply Chains have been created with globalisation.
3. To conduct a thorough research on the literature of SCM
4. Identifying advantages and challenges faced while implementing the IS/IT tools in SCM by doing the comprehensive review on the literature gathered on SCM.
5. Identifying the factors that are driving and affecting the technologies / information systems used in SCM.
6. A real case study will be carried out using a research methodology. Information will be collected through semi-structured interviews from employees of the case study organisation: Sigma Aldrich.
7. An evaluation of the outcome, based on literature and data collected during interviews is used to find the gaps between literatures (theoretical) and practise (practically) in real world.
8. Recommendations (if any) about SC in company.
The Interpretive Method is applied to understand the complex nature of IT in Supply Chain system. This will identify the sociological features like behaviour of employees, benefits of technologies employed and issues arising in business with the use of IS/IT in SCM. The interpretive method involve gathering literature on SCM, IS/IT tools used, and semi structured interviews. The research aim will be fulfilled by studying the current literature, analysing what are the factors which indicate SCM and identifying existing gaps with reference to the literature studied. Further, the research continues on existing technologies used in supporting the SCM system in the present business market. Benefits associated with implementation of IT in SCM, adoption factors and any kind of implementation issues will be determined.
For gathering the literature review core textbooks, journals, online papers, conference proceedings and information from internet have been used. After the literature study, we find out the gaps which exist in the literature read and provided. After identifying the gaps, an empirical study will be applied to give an alternative to the gaps which already been discovered in literature gathered. A qualitative research methodology has been applied. Both primary and secondary research methods are adopted. Primary method of research deals with conducting semi structured interviews and collecting data, where as secondary method of research is in the form of literature review.
This dissertation include of seven chapters, spanning the development of research from aims and objectives to the conclusions. Dissertation has been structured in the following way:
Chapter one deals with the introduction of the topic with adequate theoretical background on Supply Chain and provides overall aims and objectives of the topic. Furthermore it provides types of research methodologies employed in this dissertation to achieve the aims and objectives.
Chapter two provides literature review with the topics covering Globalisation, Supply Chain system, IS/IT tools used in SCM and it goes on with functionalities and issues arising in SCM system and also the use of IT in SCM.
Chapter three deals with the research methodologies adopted and their advantages and limitations
In chapter four, case study about a Life Science and Bio-chemical manufacturing company and its heavy utilisation of IT in SCM have been discussed. Technical characteristics of Supply Chain in that company have also been discussed.
In chapter five, case study interview findings are analysed.
Future recommendations are discussed in chapter six.
In chapter seven conclusions of the whole research are provided.
This chapter gives an introduction of the research area, highlights aims, objectives and outlines of examination. Next chapter is going to present crucial points through literature.
Human resource Development has in recent year become the focus of attention of planner's policy makers and administration. It is important not only for an enterprise but also for a nation to develop its human resources. Employee's Job Satisfaction is one of the main areas of HRD.
Organizations are social systems where human resources are the most important factors for effectiveness and efficiency. Organizations need effective managers and employees to achieve their objectives. Organizations cannot succeed without their personnel efforts and commitment. Job satisfaction is critical to retaining and attracting well-qualified personnel. This is especially an issue in medical institutions such as hospitals where specialist training and retention are highly important
Employee job satisfaction is an attitude that people have about their jobs and the organizations in which they perform these jobs. Methodologically, we can define job satisfaction as an employee's affective reaction to a job, based on a comparison between actual outcomes and desired outcomes. Job satisfaction is generally recognized as a multifaceted construct that includes employee feelings about a variety of both intrinsic and extrinsic job elements. It encompasses specific aspects of satisfaction related to pay, benefits, promotion, work conditions, supervision, organizational practices and relationships with co-workers.
Concerns about employee job satisfaction are just as critical in the apparel industry as they are in other business sectors. Similarly, the motivation to investigate job satisfaction among health care employees is similar to the interest of research concerning job satisfaction in industrial settings.
Numerous factors influence employee job satisfaction, including: salaries, fringe benefits, achievement, autonomy, recognition, communication, working conditions, job importance, co workers, degree of professionalism, organizational climate, interpersonal relationships, working for a reputable agency, supervisory support, positive affectivity, job security, workplace flexibility, working within a team environment and genetic factors. Sources of low satisfaction are associated with working with unskilled or inappropriately trained staff, laborious tasks such as documentation, repetition of duties, tensions within role expectations, role ambiguity, role conflict, job/patient care, feeling overloaded, the increasing need to be available for overtime, relations with co-workers, personal factors and organizational factors
Irvine and Evans (1995) have also underlined the importance of work characteristics (routine, autonomy and feedback), characteristics of how the work role is defined (role conflict and role ambiguity) and characteristics of the work environment (Leadership, stress, advancement opportunities and participation) in relation to job satisfaction.
Justification for the need to investigate job satisfaction is exemplified in the seemingly observed relationship between the levels of job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, grievance expression, tardiness, low morale and high turnover. Job satisfaction is an immediate antecedent of intention to leave the workplace and turnover. Unsatisfied workers will leave their jobs more than their satisfied colleagues. Retention and turnover of staff, particularly highly skilled personnel, are important issues for managers in the current health care environment. Employees who experience job satisfaction are more likely to be productive and stay on the job. Furthermore, more satisfied employees have more innovative activities in continuous quality improvement and more participation in decision-making in organizations. Job satisfaction is also found to be positively-related to patient satisfaction.
Among determinants of job satisfaction, leadership is viewed as an important predictor and plays a central role. Leadership is a management function, which is mostly directed towards people and social interaction, as well as the process of influencing people so that they will achieve the goals of the organization. Numerous studies carried out in several countries showed that there is a positive correlation between leadership and the job satisfaction of health care providers
Organizational success in obtaining its goals and objectives depends on managers and their leadership style. By using appropriate leadership styles, managers can affect employee job satisfaction, commitment and productivity.
Leadership style can be viewed as a series of managerial attitudes, behaviors, characteristics and skills based on individual and organizational values, leadership interests and reliability of employees in different situations. It is the ability of a leader to influence subordinates to performing at their highest capability. This factor captures the extent to which management respects workers, operates with honesty and integrity, promotes efficiency, and has open lines of communication with employees.
The subject of leadership is interesting for many researchers. The continued search for good leaders has resulted in the development of many leadership theories. Studies have been carried out to determine how leadership behaviors can be used to influence employees for improved organizational outcomes. In the past several decades, management experts have undergone a revolution in how they define leadership and their attitudes toward it. They have gone from a very classical autocratic approach to a very creative and participative approach. Ideas about management and leadership have changed considerably in recent years. People today are better-educated and more articulate. They can no longer be commanded in the same way as before. There needs to be much more involvement and participation at work.
There are several styles of leadership such as: autocratic, bureaucratic, laissez-faire, charismatic, democratic, participative, situational, transactional, and transformational leadership. Not everyone agrees that a particular style of leadership will result in the most effective form of organizational behavior. Different styles were needed for different situations and each leader needed to know when to exhibit a particular approach. No one leadership style is ideal for every situation, since a leader may have knowledge and skills to act effectively in one situation but may not emerge as effectively in a different situation.
INTRODUCTION OF ORIENT CRAFT
Orient Craft Limited started in the year 1972 by Mr. Sudhir Dhingra with four employees and then Orient Craft was set up in the year 1978 to take over the existing business and has now grown to 8000 employees in seventeen factories.
Orient Craft India's No. 1 Garment Manufacturer and Exporter and is the recipient of the “Gold Trophy” given by Govt. of India for highest global exports out of the country for the year 1997, 1998, 2000 & 2001. Besides many other export and quality awards, Orient Craft won the highest award for being India's larges knit apparel manufacturer and also the award for being the second largest in global exports for the year 1999. Orient Craft bagged the Bid World Quality commitment International Start Award in the Platinum Category for the year 2001 and Gold award for the year 2000 and won also many other awards and certificates from the Ministry of Textiles and states like on Sep 19, 2004, Won the “Entrepreneur of the year 2003” from the prestigious Ludhiana Management Association.
The company is growing rapidly, year after year and has its manufacturing facilities spread over 6000000 sq. ft. area with seventeen factories in and around Delhi. Another state of the art Manufacturing Complex, covering 3, 40,000 sq. ft. of covered space is completed in December 2001. This manufacturing facility is the single largest manufacturing plant in whole of India producing cut and sew knits, woven sportswear, ladies formal suits and sweaters under one roof.
Company has the most modern manufacturing plants in the country with over 1, 40,000 sq/ ft. of covered area in one location. The company deploys over 73000 imported sewing machines for its manufacturing operations in Woven and Knit units. The company has in-house lab testing for garments, fabrics, and trims. Its labs are well equipped to test for all parameters including Color-Fasteners to light. Orient Craft Limited also has several in-house latest Computerized Unit, In-house garment Dyeing Units, Manual Sand-blasting and laser sand-blasting units.
The company has three 100% export oriented unit thereby having the advantage of importing all raw materials, trims free or duty from any part of the world. The company also has a specialized Home furnishing Division, Wherein all Soft Furnishing products are manufactured and exported to some of the most prominent brands.
COMPANY ENVIRONMENT OF 7D & 7A
Company is situated in approximately 10 acres of land. It is having a beautiful garden in front and is surrounded by various decorative plants. Interior is well facilitated for normal working conditions. Nearly 3500 people are working here. Among them most of them are very co-operative, well behaving with outsiders. Company is giving all type of facilities to its employees like transport, canteen, medical and other incentives. The new HRD and labor welfare department of this company on one side playing a great role by tuning every department, to get maximum benefit to the company and on the other it is taking care of all employees and workers, it is also giving chance to new people to build their career as strong as possible in their reputed company.
The production part of this factory is divided into six units. Here no. of machines are more than 1000. Ground floor is called basement or 2nd unit. Here cutting, finishing, sewing are simultaneously going on. Next to 2nd, unit 1 is present where cutting, sewing as well as finishing takes place. Above 1st unit 3rd unit is there, which is also known as 100% EOU, Where only production is going on i.e. sewing and finishing. Above 3rd unit 4th unit is there, there also only sewing and finishing takes place. The top floor is called as 5th unit where sewing, finishing and embroidery is also going on. The last unit in 7A is called 6th unit where sewing and finishing takes place.
In the present scenario of stiff competition of quality and price in the international market, the Indian garment industry is not in the position of producing an expensive and lower quality product. Looking at the present market demand of producing inexpensive and lower quality product, Orient Craft have to increase the productivity, lower the wastage's on production floor and make use of attachments, folders, special machines and equipment to have a good quality product, in all these activities industrial engineer plays an important role. Today the industrial engineering has become the back bone of the garment industry.
In Orient Craft Ltd., Industrial Engineering Department consist of an I.E. head, eight I.E. executives reporting to Mr. Brian Long (VP Technical). Each I.E. executive is assigned the particular production floors, thus this department is covering all the floors of 7-D, 6-C, 14-A, Home furnishing and sampling department. Besides working on enhancing the productivity and quality, lowering wastage's, proper utilization of resources like special machines and equipments, this department is also assigned the project like designing the floor layouts for the new production floors and to develop new production techniques to increase the productivity.
RULES AND RESPONSIBILITY OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEER IN ORIENT CRAFT LIMITED
Sampling Re-Engineering- The work of an industrial starts with sampling re-engineering at the proto-stage so as to get to best possible construction and the use of folders and attachments in the style.
Pre-production planning- Pre-production planning starts with the receiving of a sample from the merchant of the stages of the two pieces, which is to be made on the production floor. After receiving the sample the initial operation bullet layout and new style requirement sheet is made. The purpose of making initial o/b, and layout is to know the quantity and type if manpower, machines, attachments, presses, bucks, profiles, dies etc required in the style and make sure everything is in house at the pilot stage.
Target setting- After having a rough idea of manpower and machines required from the initial o/b the company has to find out exactly how many machines and manpower is needed in the style. For this 5 pieces of cutting is taken and time motion study of that 5 pieces with R&D department using the proper method, motion and rating is done.
Final operation bulletin and layout- After tune and motion study the company make final operation bulletin and layout from this finally the company come to know the number of manpower and machines required to meet the targets. This operation bulletin and layout has to be cross checked by I.E head and then it is signed by R&D head and then it is passed to production manager.
Line setting- Line setting is the implementation of the layout and operation bulletin, which is done in conjunction with line in charge, supervisor, mechanic, Q.A and technician.
Bottle neck identification- After line setting the next job is to know the bottleneck of the line due which targets are not met.
Follow ups- This is one of the important job of industrial engineer, to do the follow up of machines folders attachments, dies, profiles whether they are in house or not before the production starts and to be in correct with concerned persons for that and to make sure everything in house before the production.
Use of modern equipment- To know and develop attachments and folders, which can be used on production floors to enhance productivity and also to make sure the proper utilization of modern machines and equipment on the production floor.
Projects- Besides all the above activities we are also handle projects on plant layouts, settings up of pre-assembly section etc.
Reporting- This includes the reason why the targets are not met and action taken by production manager to eliminate it. This report is given to I.E head on the daily basis.
Furniture designing business has a very huge scope and enjoys the strong demand from its buyers as people buy new homes and expand their businesses or renovate their old homes and offices. They always need the service of furniture designer to architect their homes and offices. Furniture designing business has rapidly increased in a last two decades due to the boom in economic activities and development. People have now more awareness about the furniture designers and they are hiring their services in designing of their business or and houses. According to the home magazine, 46 percent of UK's people plan to renovate their houses in next five years which is more than the previous five years when only 35 percent renovate their houses.
In the interior design business unlike other businesses typically you don't work whole day at offices whole day otherwise you mostly go-out of your offices in order to provide the services to the clients. Most of the sales activities are done at the customer's home or offices and almost all the negotiation are done there.
Interior Designer or Decorator?
The American Society of Interior Designers defines interior designer is one who serves people in designing their homes or offices and professionally trained to provide people quality interior environment. Interior designer is qualified through some professional education from any institute, with their experience, research and examination. A furniture designer changes the living style of people via creativity and innovation in their physical environment. Furniture designer makes people life more comfortable, healthy and safe.
There are so many people who are not having any formal education of the furniture designing or experience but still call themselves as interior designer. An interior designer should have a professional degree and should be trained in some states and should pass the subject administered by the National council for interior design Qualification. Then that person can be titled as Interior Designer. If any person who works on the interior design without having any professional qualification and training would call himself as a Decorator instead of the Furniture or Interior Designer
If you do not have the qualifications and education, you can still work on the interior design business but you would call yourself as a Decorator instead.
Types of Interior Designers
There are types of interior designer because interior designing is multi facet-business. A person can either work as a production driven designer or can work as a furniture design consultant.
The product driven designer work is more complex than the design consultant because he has to do lots of conceptualizing work of look of the given space with the creativity of mind. Variety of products can be used to fill the given space. A fresh designer has to do the similar kind of task. Mostly these kinds of designers produce different types of products and give their clients a free design advice as if required by the customers. Most of the designer gives the advice service regarding the design of the products free of cost up to some hours when time is exceeded beyond that limit thy charged for per hour fee. A product driven designer also gives the advice to their clients even if customers do not want to buy from them but they charged higher fees from those customers. The major portion of the income of the product driven designers consist on the product sales income.
Furniture design consultants don't deal in the sale of the product, they just gives the advice and solve the problem of the customers with their ideas. They charged their fee on the hourly basis. They design the furniture and help their customers in arranging and decorative activities. They make the lives of the customer more pleasant with their innovative and creative ideas. A person who has worked for many years in the design business and has a good reputation people prefer to hire those persons as a consultant design. This type of designers should have long list of references and contacts. In this type, furniture consultant designer sell their ideas and expertise then selling the product. They guide the customers regarding the design of the furniture for rooms and offices.
REPRESENTATION OF FINDINGS AND SECONDARY DATA ANALYSIS (SOME EXAMPLES)
This chapter is going to analyse the collected and observed data. I tried to touch all aspects that gave clear explanation about how can furniture designer establish its business in an open United Kingdom market. Today Furniture designing companies do a lot of changes in people life that is comfortable, improvements in standard of living by making it more stylish and beautiful. Customers' awareness about Furniture designing Company is very significant thing for establishment of company recognition, and must be taken into concern rather than suggesting consumers' promises and nonsense. All Furniture designing companies try to work hard to get new innovations for increasing their brand name in the market.
Establishment of furniture designing business recognition is also involves the process of developments, like the new services, new ways of doing advertisement, new ways of getting the customers new design of the furniture products. But even if these processes are look as if they are simple, in the sense that good marketer always have good ideas, but such steps forward do not just happen without hard work and complexities on the way of the achievements. Such processes and actions require skills of the company as a whole, to evaluate, assess, and incorporate new ideas.
Analysing found data, there are several ideas that author thinks are most important ones and should be pointed out, and these are following:
The company's services and features are the key to the designing business, and behind them there have to be enough strong foundation, that will not disappoint the customer. The furniture designers should provide services and furniture products that really will satisfy the customer needs.
The identity of the Furniture designing company is the identity of its brand name, and depending on how clear this identity is, will guide the development and execution of the company and the brand.
To have good name and respect is the most significant issue for every company including furniture designing businesses. The furniture designers must establish and have their own personality and individuality. Every customer expects new innovations and satisfactions from the furniture products they regularly use.
The establishment of the business and the development of its services and products should be realized by the company's team, and should be private as well as all key aspects and strategies should be confidential.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
While writing this thesis author has found out a lot of interesting and significant aspects about Furniture designing. It is a specific field and of course requires high professional skilled management to develop the business and get goals in the market. The studying about Furniture Designing is very global and dynamic issue that started in the beginning of the 18th century. It took a lot of decades before Furniture designing industry could obtain today's achievements and results between the strong spheres in the business and manufacture world.
For the last decade in furniture designing business one of the key roles has played IT. With the developing of IT and Internet a lot of changes have taken place in the furniture design market. Certainly they had good as well as unpleasant aspects for furniture companies that are illustrated in Chapter 2. Author wants to note that especially low cost businesses could build up strong business by using internet services. The furniture companies like hunts and Ryanair began their business right through internet and today both of them are the key competitors for the mature furniture design business.
As it is noted from the studying furniture designing companies can be divided on two parts: successful and unsuccessful. |Successful furniture designing companies will be those that anticipate the change and are ready for it when it occurs. Unsuccessful furniture designing companies will tend to be those that wait for change to happen and then desperately try to catch up.
Future of Furniture designing business in United Kingdom
According to Williams (2002) furniture designing industry will continue to grow, though rates of growth will be uneven both through time and geographically. Air freight will grow more quickly than the passenger business, and its growth will be focused in the high-yielding small shipment segment (unlike in the passenger business where the lower yielding leisure segment will grow faster than higher yielding business air travel). This will mean that it will become even more important that airlines get the profit potential of air freight to the full.
Williams (2002) also argued that in terms of the needs of their customers, furniture designing companies will again have to accept that changes will arise. Established demographic trends will continue, with in particular furniture designing affected by the general ageing of the population, the growing importance of women in business travel and the changing taste of the customers . People will also continue, on average, to be taller and heavier, and will place a still greater quality on cabin comfort. Their needs and expectations will also change. Business men in particular will be more and more attracted by furniture designers which can provide them with high quality non-stop services and which will give them durable, economical and high quality of furniture for their business. It will easier to gain the competitive advantage for those companies who will adapt their selves to the new creative and innovative design. The cost will and quality will be the real key for the success.
'Deregulation will also continue, backed in the future by growing intervention by governments to ensure that the enhanced competition which normally follows the removal of pricing and entry controls remains a permanent rather than merely a transient feature. This will in turn require furniture designing organizations to be lean and flexible and to be able to make decision quickly. Those that cannot will be seriously handicapped.
In the future, it is likely that the world political scene will be even more unstable than today. This will mean that the furniture designing industry will continue to be affected by the periods of low demand caused by war, riots, and other disturbances.
With economic aspects, furniture designing industry will always be affected by the trade cycle. In buoyant times, business will fare relatively well financially, but downswing periods in the cycle will be difficult. Well established furniture designing organizations will be those that use the more prosperous to prepare for periods when growth slows or stops
After all said it is becoming clear that in future, successful and well established furniture companies will be those which select a clear strategy and stick with it, changing the way in which they apply the strategy rather than the basic principles associated with it.
I want to summarize this thesis with a number of recommendations that in my opinion will be indeed important for furniture design companies to be successful and have a brighter future in the market:
Furniture designers have to identify their most important customers and build warm and long-term relationship with them. Because it is difficult to serve all the customers excellent services for any new business. So, business needs to define its target market and focus on it.
Furniture designers have to offer new services and product features which can be innovative for the customers. Customers always need the change so be innovative always is vital for the furniture designers especially for the new entrants.
Furniture designers should often organize different training classes and workshops to develop the skill and experience of the staff.
Furniture design companies should focus on corporate social responsibility and public relations to create recognition and awareness among customers. Corporate social responsibility is a vital issue for every organization so should be given proper concentration.
Consumers are the most important part of any business. The customers who are highly satisfied with the company recommend the company to other customers. These customers are highly profitable customers. Furniture designing Companies should cultivate opinion leaders from these customers in order to establish a word of mouth communications among customers. Opinion Leaders are unpaid sales force of the business.
Creating Recognition is all about creating awareness among the consumers. In order to create awareness among people we need to know the media habits of people. A proper structured research should be conducted to know the media habits of target audience.
Role of IT can not be ignored at this time of world business; Most of the organizations have become successful by adopting Information Technology. It can help organizations to gain competitive advantage.
As United Kingdom furniture market is more competitive than other countries like no barriers to new entry so, every new Furniture designing company should provide its products at economical prices, should give more attention towards quality of products and timely delivery.
From the above studying it is clear to understand that Furniture designing business like all others builds on customer trust and respect so strong Furniture designing Company with a bright future can be constructed by offering unique, creative, innovative designs of furniture products along with their quality and durability to achieve customer's satisfaction.
The research will be rather explanatory and descriptive than analytical and exploratory and it will be a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods.
According to Hakim C., (2000), quantitative research is mainly concerned with numbers and data easily quantified. In this research surveys, Phone, emails and most probably Personal Interviews with professionals related to airlines companies and industry attractiveness will be held and analysed in the process of research, as in-depth interviews are useful when examining a specific subject in depth.
It's proposed to study maximum of available data from all official sources, such as publications and official web sites. The survey will aim to understand actual and future outlook of Furniture designing business to satisfy their customers.
一、剑桥大学——University of Cambridge
金融经济类：GPA 3.5 or 87.5%以上，GMAT 730，IELTS 7.5以上；
二、牛津大学——University of Oxford
(1)金融经济类：GPA 3.5 or 87.5%以上，GMAT730，IELTS7.5以上；
四、伦敦大学学院——University of College London
(1)本科：本科A-level要求3个A， IELTS 7.0(每项不低于7.0)；中国大学排名前TOP30，85分以上；30以后，90分以上，IELTS一般7-7.5；
(2)专业要求：金融、经济、管理等专业需提供GMAT 720左右的成绩；无理工科硕士，有双学位合办项目，需两所大学同时递交申请；学校会根据学生的GMAT 或者IELTS成绩而决定均分要求。
It is firmly established that directors owe duties to their companies as a whole but not to any individual members or other persons, such as creditors. However, in certain circumstances it has become established in English law, that directors in discharging their duties to their companies must take into account the interests of creditors, on the basis that the interests of their companies encompass the interests of the companies’ creditors. This duty was first established by the obiter dicta of Mason J. of the Australian High Court in delivering the leading judgment in Walker v. Wimborne where his Honour said:
‘In this respect it should be emphasised that the directors of a company in discharging their duty to the company must take into account of the interests of its shareholders and its creditors. Any failure by the directors to take into account the interests of creditors will have adverse consequences for the company as well as for them.’
This statement was subsequently taken up by courts in the U.K. with the result that at certain points in the life of a company, its directors may be forced to give consideration to the interests of the creditors. Thus in Lonrho Ltd v. Shell Petroleum Co. Ltd where his Lord Diplock said that it is the duty of the board to do what would be in the best interests of the company and that ‘[t]hese are not exclusively those of its shareholders but may include those of its creditors.’ In this essay, we investigate whether rationale for this duty, its extent is and finally its limits and scope.
The nature and rationale for the duty
There has been a considerable amount of discussion as to whether the duty owed by directors is a direct duty owed to the creditors, or whether it is an indirect duty in that the duty is owed not to creditors, but to the company to consider creditor interests. In this regard, it should be noted that while there has been support for the view that the directors owe a direct duty to creditors, the predominant opinion, both within academic discourse and in judgments is that this is not correct. Rather directors owe a duty to their companies to take into account the interests of creditors. While the former provides for a direct duty, the latter allows for an indirect duty, a duty which is mediated through the company.
The rationale for this duty lies in the fact if a company is insolvent or doubtfully insolvent then ‘the interests of the company are in reality the interests of existing creditors alone.’ At this time, because the company is effectively trading with the creditors’ money, the creditors become the major stakeholders in the company and are, in effect, the real owners of the company; the ownership rights of the shareholders having been expunged as there is nothing over which they have a claim.
The creditors, therefore, warrant some form of fiduciary protection. The directors become accountable principally to the creditors as they are the ones to lose out if the company collapses. Consequently, if a company is insolvent, the directors will be held to have acted improperly if they employ funds that are payable to creditors in order to continue the activities of the company. Thus, in situations of insolvency, whilst the doctrine of limited liability shifts the risk of failure from the shareholders to the creditors, the duty to take account of creditors’ interests seeks to mitigate the shift.
The extent of the duty to protect creditors’ interests
When a company has a significant amount of assets and the debts owed to creditors are relatively minimal then the interests of creditors should not count for a lot because the company will be able to satisfy them. However, where there is some element of insolvency or possibility of it, the situation is significantly different. In this regard, the courts have taken widely differing views. Some have taken the view that the duty of directors only arises when the company is insolvent whilst others courts have taken a broader view and held that the duty arises where the director has knowledge of a real risk of the company’s insolvency.
While accepting that the duty arises when a company is insolvent, Street C.J. in the frequently cited case of Kinsela v. Russell Kinsela Pty Ltd (in liq) was reluctant to state when the duty arises, save to acknowledge the fact that key factor wasfinancial instability. He held:
I hesitate to attempt to formulate a general test of the degree of financial instability which would impose upon directors an obligation to consider the interests of creditors.
In my view, it seems that deciding whether the duty to protect creditors’ interests had arisen will depend on the facts of each particular case. Clearly the courts have held that directors must take into account creditors’ interests when insolvency exists, but there is significant authority to suggest that this same duty is triggered when a company’s solvency is doubtful or even when a company is suffering financial instability, and possibly when directors are contemplating any action which if unsuccessful would prejudice creditors.
The purposes and limits of the directors’ duty to protect
Actions for breach of duty have been and can, continue to be used to enable liquidators to enlarge the assets available to creditors on an insolvent liquidation. They may also be used to thwart directors from proving in the winding up. Further to that, the duty to take into account creditors’ interests circumscribes the power of the shareholders to ratify a breach of duty on the part of the directors since whenever the duty arises the law is clear that shareholders are unable to ratify directors’ actions. Finally, the existence of the duty to consider the interests of creditors means that there is the possibility, because of potential personal liability, that it will act as a deterrent as far as unscrupulous and reckless directors are concerned so that they do not take actions which may well affect creditors’ rights.
Undoubtedly, there are some disadvantages in pursuing a claim for a breach of duty.
One of these is that a court is able where the claim is for breach of duty to grant relief to the respondent director under section 727 of the Companies Act 1985. This provision permits a court to, wholly or in part, relieve officers from liability in relation to proceedings for negligence, default, breach of duty, or breach of trust. The court may exercise its jurisdiction under section 727 only if it is satisfied that the person who sought relief had acted honestly, and reasonably, and that, having regard to all the circumstances of the case, he or she ought fairly to be excused. Thus, although the creditor may establish the existence of the duty and its breach by the director, the court may still exonerate him under section 727.
Further to that, even if a liquidator obtains an order from the court based on a breach of duty, the problem facing the liquidator is that the order has to be enforced against the directors who may be impecunious, rendering the proceedings useless. Thus, the existence of the duty may turn out valueless invoked as is usually the case when the company has become insolvent. This point stems from the fact that is that there is no plain statement in the case law on directors’ duties as to when the duty to creditors is triggered.
However, the biggest drawback with pursuing a claim for breach of duty probably is the fact that the fruits of a successful claim will be available to any secured creditor who has a floating charge over all present and future company property.
There is a lot of public policy support for maintaining the existence of the directors’ duty to protect creditors’ interests, especially when the company’s financial basis is not secure. The protection provided by this duty should help bolster that afforded by other statutory devices such as wrongful trading (section 214 Insolvency Act 1986), adjustment provisions (Part IV Insolvency Act 1986), fraudulent trading (section 213 Insolvency Act 1986) and misfeasance (section 212 Insolvency Act 1986).
You can get help with your dissertation right now. Find out more...
Companies Act 1985
Insolvency Act 1986
Brady v. Brady (1988) 3 B.C.C. 535.
Kinsela v. Russell Kinsela Pty Ltd (1986) 4 A.C.L.C. 215.
Liquidator of West Mercia Safetywear v. Dodd (1988) 4 B.C.C. 30.
Lonrho Ltd v. Shell Petroleum Co. Ltd  1 W.L.R. 627.
Percival v. Wright  2 Ch. 421.
Re Horsley & Weight Ltd  3 All E.R. 1045.
Walker v. Wimborne (1976) C.L.R. 1.
Winkworth v. Edward Baron Development Ltd  1 W.L.R. 1512, 1516.
Prentice, ‘Creditor's Interests and Director's Duties’ (1990) 10 O.J.L.S. 265.
Prentice, ‘Directors, Creditors and Shareholders’ in E. McKendrick (ed.), Commercial Aspects of Trusts and Fiduciary Obligations (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1992), 79.
Ross, M ‘Directors' Liability on Corporate Restructuring’ in C. Rickett (ed.), Essays on Corporate Restructuring and Insolvency (Brooker's, Wellington, 1996), 177.
Van der Weide, ‘Against Fiduciary Duties to Corporate Stakeholders’ (1996) 21
Spaces, based on their usability can be broadly divided into public spaces and private spaces. A proper mix of each of them is fundamental in a successful. In many cases creating these spaces have unintentionally created unusable spaces known as Negative Spaces or Non Places. In fast growing cities like New Delhi where the need of the hour is rapid growth, designers and customers often foresee the creation of Negative Spaces. Spaces beneath Flyovers, area around the built are typical example of Negative Spaces which have minimal utility. Negative Spaces could either be planned as a part of the design or could be incidental. Though considered Negative the general public of a city like Delhi have made maximum utilization of them by either using them as squatters or for setting up temporary business prospects. These Non Places present in urban settlements like Delhi if put into use can not only improve the living of the people but allow in the more sustainable growth of the city.
Though Space utilization has been happening over the ages indigenously, a planned and systematic approach would approve to the context as well. Guidelines and methods to use these spaces would help in preventing the formation of the spaces in the first place. Designers should be made to work in synchronization so that Non Places can be minimized.
On the other hand is it certain that during creation of city formation of Negative Spaces is Inevitable? Are Negative Spaces part and parcel of designs? Would mitigating these mean that a city’s buffer space is ignored? (Augé, 1995)
THE OPEN SPACE
The presence of Open space in a design is as important as creating the closed spaces. In a growing country like India space constrains have influenced the perception of open spaces. Lack of open spaces has indeed changed the idea of public spaces. Designers have been forced to merge the interior with the open spaces in order to cater to the needs of unprecedented growth. This has resulted in a gradual shift of usage of spaces in general. Lack of planning has lead to creation of Useless Spaces or Negative Spaces. Open spaces can be classified into two broad categories, Open Spaces Formed and Open Spaces Created. (Gupta S. A., 2007)
Spaces that are free and open are meant to be the domain of all public activities. Public Space in a city is thus formed by the quality of space. Public Spaces that are made forcefully often transform into Negative or Unused Spaces. The urbanization and lack of planned public spaces have resulted in the Open Spaces formed or created, overshadowed by the built, road etc. The shift in priority of spaces has made the open spaces unusable.
Maximum usability of available land area has been the priority in most cases influencing the plans. Effort has been made to get maximum area covered under built due to dearth of land. The open space left out in many cases is unusable either due to its position or due to its size.
Designs are heavily dependent on the law of the land rather than the need and aesthetic.
The Lutyen’s Delhi master plan is a classic example of planned open public spaces with the Central Park being the epicenter of public activities. The Blocks and the roads leading to the Central Park radiate from the park making it a successful public open space with minimal space wastage. (2163, 2009)
Varanasi is an example where the open spaces formed are much more organic in nature. Settlement along the Ganga has happened since 3000B.C. where settlement has taken place in phases. The open spaces crested between house each house was either used for another house or was kept as a space for public meetings. The organic nature of this settlement ensured that minimum space was wasted.
FORMATION OF NEGATIVE SPACES
Negative spaces are created or formed when one of the following factors fail
Shape size and orientation of the space with the context
Relationship with the environment
Activities that the space is meant for
Lighting provided to the space
Formation of Negative Spaces from large open spaces being divided into individual spaces is a major factor. (SA 1669 Form and Space, 2008)
history OF NEGATIVE SPACES
Formation of Negative Spaces is certainly not a new concept. It has been happening through the ages, with different factors influencing its creation. In the early times change of rulers also resulted in the formation of Negative Spaces. This was primarily because each ruler intended in creating a focal point of his own in the state. Therefore the previous capitals were abandoned and a new base was set up each time a ruler came into power. Therefore the present place was left which in time ruined and remained unusable. Ancient and Medieval Indian and Arab builders carved out the open or the void.
Open Spaces in a City was generally used as a street. The streets of Shahajahanabad are an example where the street is the open space for the public. All gatherings and meetings happened along the streets itself.
As time progressed and with decrease in the amount of available of space for architects and designers to move vertical. Thus an era of skyscrapers began. Although on one hand it allowed lesser usage of space on the ground with houses and offices stacked one above the other it also began to create a drift between the people and open space. People no longer were directly connected to the open or public spaces. This resulted in them being used less often making the space useless or Negative. Therefore the creation on tall buildings saved space but also lead to the formation of Negative Space. In India with growth happening in an unplanned manner, more than 80% of buildings are built my Non Architects. Surroundings and context is given least importance as the primary motive is taken care of one’s’ needs alone. (Gupta N. , 2001)
Crime is one of the major problems of Negative spaces. Spaces that are used less often are easy targets for criminals.
Easy accessibility for criminals
Vulnerability of targets
Unplanned settlements are some of the factors for crime. Places like Old Delhi are most vulnerable as they cater to the needs of the criminals. As architects minimizing the presence of Negative Spaces would give better security to the citizens of the city. Ways of minimizing crime in public spaces are by creating an activity which acts as public magnets to attract crowds. Installations, kiosks, pedestrian pathways are some of the solutions in mitigating crime in public spaces. Indirect methods of reducing crime can be done by maintaining a Natural Surveillance (sen, 1992)
THE NATURE OF SPACE IN BETWEEN BUILDINGS
The nature of work as architects used to focus on micro-development. On the other hand; town planners used to focus on the macro-development of the city. The overlapping of focuses is objectively to detail-up the development into more specific document. However, there is human error of an overlooked-space which occurred unintentionally. This is due to the execution of the development proposals are in the scale-down basis. On the other hand, in reality the end users’ perception is at one to one scale. Consequently, there is human error due to the transition of scale from the reality to the development proposal and vice-versa in the development execution
THE SCENARIO OF SPACES IN BETWEEN BUILDINGS
There are variety of sizes and locations of those spaces elsewhere in the city. Some are spacious and some are smalls. The spaces in between buildings are mostly found in between, in front, at the sides and at the rear of buildings. Due to the variety of sizes and location of those spaces; the degree of surveillance also varies accordingly. The more surveillance area is, the more secure the space will be. If comparison were made between an isolated and an exposed area; the degree of surveillance was much higher for more visually-accessible area. Therefore, it is an advantage to allow pedestrians and end users to pass by or circulate around the space in between buildings. The activity of meandering around buildings can be programmed as part of the overall urban recreation development.
In perceiving spaces in between buildings, Alexander (1997) agreed that there are two different kinds of outdoor spaces: negative space and positive space. However, he regarded the outdoor space as negative when the space is a free space or shapeless without enclosure. For example, an outdoor space is positive when it has a distinct, definite shape of the surrounding enclosure. As definite shape of a room defined the quality of an indoor space, therefore the shape for outdoor space in between buildings is as important as the shapes of the buildings which surround it.
The reality of the existence of space in between buildings was due to many reasons such as unplanned space in the macro-development. The space became a left-over space in the execution of the city development. Those areas were uneconomical to be gazetted for any development. In most cases, this area was dedicated for passive green area by the local authority. However, at the actual implementation on site was a space without proper designation for public acknowledgement. Without proper designation of function has lead the end-users used the space for rubbish-disposal or short-cut walkway to access to the back lane.
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.